UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
 
 
(Mark One)
 
☒  Annual report under Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016.
 
☐  Transition report under Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (No fee required)
For the transition period from _______ to _______.
 
Commission file number: 000-53473
 
Torchlight Energy Resources, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant in its charter)
 
Nevada
74-3237581
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
Organization)
 
 
5700 W. Plano Parkway, Suite 3600
Plano, Texas 75093

(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(214) 432-8002

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act:
 
Common Stock ($0.001 Par Value)

(Title of Each Class)
 
The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC

(Name of each exchange on which registered)
 
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act:
 
None
                                                                                                   
 
 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐  No
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐  No
 
 
 
1
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒  No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).Yes   No
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
 
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
☐  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐  No
 
The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant on June 30, 2016, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, based on the closing price on that date of $.55 on the Nasdaq Stock Market, was approximately $19,404,947.
 
At March 21, 2017, there were 57,862,004 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding (the only class of common stock).
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
None.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2
 
 
 
NOTE ABOUT FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements include, among other things, statements regarding plans, objectives, goals, strategies, future events or performance and underlying assumptions and other statements, which are other than statements of historical facts. Forward-looking statements may appear throughout this report, including without limitation, the following sections: Item 1 “Business,” Item 1A “Risk Factors,” and Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Forward-looking statements generally can be identified by words such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “predicts,” “projects,” “will be,” “will continue,” “will likely result,” and similar expressions. These forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and assumptions that are subject to risks and uncertainties, which could cause our actual results to differ materially from those reflected in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and in particular, the risks discussed under the caption “Risk Factors” in Item 1A and those discussed in other documents we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Important factors that in our view could cause material adverse effects on our financial condition and results of operations include, but are not limited to, risks associated with the company's ability to obtain additional capital in the future to fund planned expansion, the demand for oil and natural gas, general economic factors, competition in the industry and other factors that may cause actual results to be materially different from those described herein as anticipated, believed, estimated or expected. We undertake no obligation to revise or publicly release the results of any revision to any forward-looking statements, except as required by law. Given these risks and uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements.
 
As used herein, the “Company,” “Torchlight,” “we,” “our,” and similar terms include Torchlight Energy Resources, Inc. and its subsidiaries, unless the context indicates otherwise.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3
 
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
PART I
 
 
 
 
Page
Item 1.
Business
 
5
Item 1A.
Risk Factors
 
11
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
 
19
Item 2.
Properties
 
20
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
 
30
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
 
30
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
 
 
Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
31
Item 6.
Selected Financial Data
 
32
Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 
32
Item 7A.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
 
37
Item 8.
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
 
38
Item 9.
Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
 
59
Item 9A.
Controls and Procedures
 
59
Item 9B.
Other Information
 
60
 
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
 
 
Item 10.
Directors, Executive Officer, and Corporate Governance
 
61
Item 11.
Executive Compensation
 
63
Item 12.
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
 
66
Item 13.
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
 
68
Item 14.
Principal Accountant Fees and Services
 
69
Item 15.
Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
 
70
 
 
 
 
 
Signatures
 
72
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4
 
 
 
PART I
 
ITEM 1.     BUSINESS
 
Corporate History and Background
 
Torchlight Energy Resources, Inc. was incorporated in October 2007 under the laws of the State of Nevada as Pole Perfect Studios, Inc. (“PPS”).  
 
On November 23, 2010, we entered into and closed a Share Exchange Agreement (the “Exchange Agreement”) between the major shareholders of PPS and the shareholders of Torchlight Energy, Inc. (“TEI”).  As a result of the transactions effected by the Exchange Agreement, at closing TEI became our wholly-owned subsidiary, and the business of TEI became our sole business.  TEI is an energy company, incorporated under the laws of the State of Nevada in June 2010.  We are engaged in the acquisition, exploration, exploitation, and/or development of oil and natural gas properties in the United States.  In addition to TEI, we also operate our business through two other wholly-owned subsidiaries, Torchlight Energy Operating, LLC, a Texas limited liability company, and Hudspeth Oil Corporation, a Texas corporation.
 
Effective February 8, 2011, we changed our name to “Torchlight Energy Resources, Inc.”  In connection with the name change, our ticker symbol changed from “PPFT” to “TRCH.”
 
Business Overview
 
Our business model is to focus on drilling and working interest programs within the United States, primarily in basins or areas with known geology such as the Permian Basin in West Texas. We have interests in three oil and gas projects, which projects are described in more detail below in the section titled “Current Projects.”  We anticipate being involved in multiple other oil and gas projects moving forward, pending adequate funding.  We anticipate acquiring exploration and development projects both as a non-operating working interest partner, participating in drilling activities primarily on a basis proportionate to the working interest, and acquiring properties we can operate.  We intend to spread the risk associated with drilling programs by entering into a variety of programs in different fields with differing economics.
 
Salient characteristics of the company include our industry relationships, leverage for prospect selection, anticipated diversity, both geologically and geographically, cost control, partnering, and protection of capital exposure.  Management believes opportunities exist to identify and pursue relatively low risk projects at very attractive entry prices.  These projects may be available from small operators in financial distress, larger companies that need to share costs, and large producers who are consolidating their activities in other areas.  Management believes attractive entry prices and tight cost control will result in returns that are superior to those achieved by major companies or small independents.  An integral part of this strategy is the partnering of major activities.  Such partnering will enable us to acquire the talents of proven industry veterans, as needed, without affecting our long-term fixed overhead costs.
 
Key Business Attributes
 
Experienced People.  We build on the expertise and experiences of our management team, including John Brda and Roger Wurtele.  We will also receive guidance from outside advisors as well as our Board of Directors and will align with high quality exploration and technical partners.  
 
Project Focus. We are focusing primarily on exploitation projects by pursuing resources in areas where commercial production has already been established but where opportunity for additional and nearby development is indicated. We may pursue high risk exploration prospects which may appear less favored than low risk exploration. We will, however, consider these high risk-high reward exploration prospects in connection with exploitation opportunities in a project that would reduce the overall project economic risk. We will consider such high risk-high reward prospects on their individual merits. 
 
Lower Cost Structure.  We will attempt to maintain the lowest possible cost structure, enabling the greatest margins and providing opportunities for investment that would not be feasible for higher cost competitors.
 
Limit Capital Risks.  Limited capital exposure is planned initially to add value to a project and determine its economic viability. Projects are staged and have options before additional capital is invested. We will limit our exposure in any one project by participating at reduced working interest levels, thereby being able to diversify with limited capital. Management has experience in successfully managing risks of projects, finance, and value.
 
 
 
5
 
 
ITEM 1.    BUSINESS - continued
 
Project Focus
 
Generally, we will focus on exploitation projects (primarily for oil, although gas projects will be considered if the economics are favorable).  Projects are first identified, evaluated, and followed by the engagement of third party operating or financial partners. Subject to overall availability of capital, our interest in large capital projects will be limited. Each opportunity will be investigated on a standalone basis for both technical and financial merit.   
 
We will be actively seeking quality new investment opportunities to sustain our growth, and we believe we will have access to many new projects. The sources of these opportunities will vary but all will be evaluated with the same criteria of technical and economic factors.   It is expected that projects will come from the many small producers who find themselves under-funded or over-extended and therefore vulnerable to price volatility. The financial ability to respond quickly to opportunities will ensure a continuous stream of projects and will enable us to negotiate from a stronger position to enhance value.  
 
With emphasis on acquisitions and development strategies, the types of projects in which we will be involved vary from increased production due to simple re-engineering of existing wellbores to step-out drilling, drilling horizontally, and extensions of known fields.  Recompletion of existing wellbores in new zones, development of deeper zones and detailing of structure, and stratigraphic traps with three-dimensional seismic and utilization of new technologies will all be part of our anticipated program. Our preferred type of projects are in-fills to existing production with nearly immediate cash flow and/or adjacent or on trend to existing production. We will prefer projects with moderate to low risk, unrecognized upside potential, and geographic diversity.  
 
Business Processes
 
We believe there are three principal business processes that we must follow to enable our operations to be profitable.  Each major business process offers the opportunity for a distinct partner or alliance as we grow. These processes are:
 
· 
Investment Evaluation and Review;
· 
Operations and Field Activities; and
· 
Administrative and Finance Management.
 
Investment Evaluation and Review.  This process is the key ingredient to our success. Recognition of quality investment opportunities is the fuel that drives our engine.  Broadly, this process includes the following activities: prospect acquisition, regional and local geological and geophysical evaluations, data processing, economic analysis, lease acquisition and negotiations, permitting, and field supervision.  We expect these evaluation processes to be managed by our management team.  Expert or specific technical support will be outsourced as needed.  Only if a project is taken to development, and only then, will additional staff be hired.  New personnel will have very specific responsibilities.  We anticipate attractive investment opportunities to be presented from outside companies and from the large informal community of geoscientists and engineers. Building a network of advisors is key to the pipeline of high quality opportunities.  
 
Operations and Field Activities.   This process begins following management approval of an investment.  Well site supervision, construction, drilling, logging, product marketing, and transportation are examples of some activities.   We will prefer to be the operator, but when operations are not possible, we will farm-out sufficient interests to third parties that will be responsible for these operating activities.  We provide personnel to monitor these activities and associated costs.
 
Administrative and Finance Management.   This process coordinates our initial structuring and capitalization, general operations and accounting, reporting, audit, banking and cash management, regulatory agencies reporting and interaction, timely and accurate payment of royalties, taxes, leases rentals, vendor accounts and performance management that includes budgeting and maintenance of financial controls, and interface with legal counsel and tax and other financial and business advisors.  
 
Current Projects
 
As of December 31, 2016 the Company had interests in three oil and gas projects:, the Orogrande Project in Hudspeth County, Texas, and the Hazel Project in Sterling, Tom Green, and Irion Counties, Texas, and the Hunton wells in partnership with Husky Ventures in Central Oklahoma .
 
 
 
6
 
 
ITEM 1.    BUSINESS - continued
 
Orogrande Project, West Texas
 
On August 7, 2014, we entered into a Purchase Agreement with Hudspeth Oil Corporation (“Hudspeth”), McCabe Petroleum Corporation (“MPC”), and Greg McCabe. Mr. McCabe was the sole owner of both Hudspeth and MPC. Under the terms and conditions of the Purchase Agreement, at closing, we purchased 100% of the capital stock of Hudspeth which holds certain oil and gas assets, including a 100% working interest in 172,000 mostly contiguous acres in the Orogrande Basin in West Texas. This acreage is in the primary term under five-year leases that carry additional five-year extension provisions. As consideration, at closing we issued 868,750 shares of our common stock to Mr. McCabe and paid a total of $100,000 in geologic origination fees to third parties.  Additionally, Mr. McCabe has, at his option, a 10% working interest back-in after payout and a reversionary interest if drilling obligations are not met, all under the terms and conditions of a participation and development agreement. All drilling obligations through December 31, 2016 have been met.  Closing of the transactions occurred on September 23, 2014.
 
Of the 168,000 acres, 40,154 were scheduled for renewal in December, 2014.  The Company renewed the leases for the 40,154 acres during second quarter, 2015. Prior to March 31, 2015, the Company had the obligation to begin drilling its first well in order to hold the acreage block. The Rich A-11 well was permitted and spudded and drilling began as required by March 31, 2015.
 
The Company finalized an agreement to sell a 5% working interest in the Orogrande acreage on June 30, 2015 with an effective date of April 1, 2015. Sale proceeds were $500,000 which were received in April, 2015. In addition, the Company issued 250,000 three year warrants with an exercise price of $.50 to the purchaser.
 
On September 23, 2015, our subsidiary, Hudspeth Oil Corporation (“HOC”), entered into a Farmout Agreement by and between HOC, Pandora Energy, LP (“Pandora”), Founders Oil & Gas, LLC (“Founders”), McCabe Petroleum Corporation and Greg McCabe (McCabe Petroleum Corporation and Greg McCabe are parties to the Farmout Agreement for limited purposes) for the entire Orogrande Project in Hudspeth County, Texas.  The Farmout Agreement provides for Founders to earn from HOC and Pandora (collectively, the “Farmor”) an undivided 50% of the leasehold interest in the Orogrande Project by Founder’s spending a minimum of $45 million on actual drilling operations on the Orogrande Project in the next two years.  Founders is to pay Farmor a total cost reimbursement of $5,000,000 in multiple installments as follows: (1) $1,000,000 at the signing of the Farmout Agreement, the balance of which was received on September 24, 2015; (2) within 90 days from the closing, Founders will frac and complete the Rich A-11 No. 1 Well; and (3) within five days of the spudding of each of the next eight wells drilled by Founders, Founders will pay to Farmor $500,000 resulting in the payment of the remaining amount; provided that, in the event that within 90 days after the fracing of the Rich Well, Founders notifies Farmor of its election not to drill any additional wells, Founders shall have no further obligation to make further payment.  
 
Upon payment of the first $1,000,000, Farmor assigned to Founders an undivided 50% of the leasehold interest and a 37.5% net revenue interest in the leases subject to the terms of the Farmout Agreement (including obligations to re-assign to HOC and Pandora if the 50% interest in the entire Orogrande Project is not earned) and a proportionate share of the McCabe 10% BIAPO (back in after pay out) interest; provided, however, that for each well that Founders drills prior to earning the acreage, it will be assigned a 50% working interest in the wellbore and in the lease on which it sits.
 
Under a joint operating agreement (on A.A.P.L. Form 610 – 1989 Model Form Operating Agreement with COPAS 2005 Accounting Procedures) (“JOA”) also entered into on September 23, 2015, Founders is designated as operator of the leases.  Any variance to the operating plan will be determined by a Development Committee, which committee is made up of members from Founders and Farmor, or their designees, to discuss and recommend the location of the drill wells, data to be gathered and the form of same.  As contemplated under the Farmout Agreement, starting within 90 days of the completion of the fracing on the Rich A-11 Well, and at all times subject to the 90 day continuous drilling clause, Founders has the option, but not the obligation, to retain the assigned interest as follows: (1) if Founders spends a minimum of $45 million on actual drilling operations while maintaining compliance with the continuous drilling clause, subject to reasonable delays resulting from reasonable Force Majeure conditions, Founders will have fulfilled its farmout obligations and will be entitled to retain the assigned interests. If Founders does not meet such obligations, it will reassign to Farmor the assigned interest except it will be entitled to retain its interest in the leases covering all wells drilled by Founders and the sections in which such wells are located. Additionally, Founders will resign as operator of the JOA as to all lands reassigned; and (2) Farmor will be carried in all drilling operations during the first two years and/or $45 million in drilling operations, whichever comes last, subject to Founders’ right to recoup certain expenses on “Gap Wells.”  After three years and after Founders has earned its working interest, either party may elect to market the acreage as an entire block, including operatorship.  Should an acceptable bid arise, and both parties agree, the block will be sold 100% working interest to that third party bidder.  However, if only one party wants to accept the outside offer, the other party (the party who wishes not to sell) has the right to purchase the working interest from the selling party.
 
The Rich A-11 well that was drilled by Torchlight in second quarter, 2015 was evaluated and numerous scientific tests were performed to provide key data for the field development thesis. During the testing process a poor cement bond was identified preventing a cost effective production test for the primary pay zones. Repair to the well bore necessary for a subsequent frac procedure was determined to be economically unfeasible. With the Rich A-11 designed as a test well rather than commercial target, a decision to begin plans for drilling the next well(s) with larger casing that utilized for future commercial production was made.
 
Torchlight Energy and Founders have elected to move forward on planning the next phase of drilling in the Orogrande Project. The project operator planned to permit three new wells in 2016 starting with the University Founders B-19 #1 well. The new wells would be drilled vertically for test purposes and would have sufficient casing size to support lateral entry into any pay zone(s) encountered once the well is tested vertically. Torchlight and the project operator would then run a battery of tests on each well to gain information for future development of the field. The second test well, the University Founders B-19 #1, was spudded on April 24, 2016 and drilled in second quarter, 2016. The well successfully pumped down completion fluid in third quarter and indications of hydrocarbons were seen at the surface on this second Orogrande Project test well. Despite encountering a bedding plane in a small section of the wellbore which required the installation of a pump to dewater, fluids from the B-19 #1 test well have begun to show an oil cut. The oil samples appear to be to be very high gravity in the 45° to 47° API range. The well has shown casing pressure measured from 200 psi to 540 psi at various times during the testing phase. The presence of natural gas is also noted and samples have been taken showing a ~1050 BTU content.
 
 
 
 
7
 
 
ITEM 1.    BUSINESS - continued
 
The parties have agreed to amend the drilling schedule for the next well to be no later than April 30, 2017. Future plans are focused on drilling additional wells in the Orogrande per our Farmout agreement with Founders in which we will be carried on costs for all aspects of drilling for the foreseeable future.
 
Hazel Project in the Midland Basin in West Texas
 
Effective April 1, 2016, Torchlight Energy Inc. acquired from McCabe Petroleum Corporation, a 66.66% working interest in approximately 12,000 acres in the Midland Basin in exchange for 1,500,000 warrants to purchase our common stock with an exercise price of $1.00 for five years and a back-in after payout of a 25% working interest to the seller.
 
Initial development of the first well on the property, the Flying B Ranch #1, began July 10, 2016 and development continued through September 30, 2016. This well was is classified as a test well in the development pursuit of the Hazel Project.
 
In October, 2016, the holders of the Company's Series C Preferred shares (which were issued in July, 2016) elected to convert into a 33.33% Working Interest in the Company's Hazel Project, reducing Torchlight's ownership from 66.66% to a 33.33% Working Interest.
 
On December 27, 2016, drilling activities commenced on its next Midland Basin, Hazel Project well, the Flying B Ranch #2. The well will be a vertical test similar to the Company's first Hazel Project well, the Flying B Ranch #1. We intend to continue to de-risk the Hazel AMI by continuing to drill evaluation wells. The next scheduled well in the Hazel Project is set for the end of June, 2017. It is intended to be a horizontal well testing the Wolfcamp formation in order to determine horizontal viability of the play.
 
In November, 2016, the Company announced that it had entered into a Letter of Intent to increase its ownership across all 12,000 gross acres in the Hazel Project resulting in 8,880 net acres in its Midland Basin Hazel Project. Upon closing of the transactions in January, 2017 contemplated by the Letter of Intent, Torchlight obtained the additional 40.66% Working Interest from an entity owned and controlled by its Chairman, Greg McCabe, increasing Torchlight's total ownership to 74%. Reference “Subsequent Events” in Note 11 to the financial statements included in this report.
 
Hunton Play, Central Oklahoma
 
As of December 31, 2016, we were actively producing from one well in the Viking AMI, and one well in Prairie Grove.
 
Legal Proceeding
 
As previously disclosed, in May, 2016, Torchlight Energy Resources, Inc. and its subsidiary Torchlight Energy, Inc. filed a lawsuit in the 429th judicial district court in Collin County, Texas against Husky Ventures, Inc., Charles V. Long, April Glidewell, Silverstar of Nevada, Inc., Maximus Exploration, LLC, Atwood Acquisitions, LLC, Gastar Exploration Inc., J. Russell Porter, Michael A. Gerlich, Jerry R. Schuyler, and John M. Selser, Sr. Reference is made to Item 3, “Legal Proceedings,” for more information regarding this lawsuit.
 
Viking AMI
 
In the fourth quarter of 2013 we entered into an Area of Mutual Interest (AMI) with Husky Ventures, the Viking Prospect. We acquired a 25% interest in 3,945 acres and subsequently acquired an additional 5% in May, 2014. We had an interest in 8,800 total acres as of December 31, 2016. (Net undeveloped acres = 2,600) Husky drilled the first two wells in the AMI in second quarter, 2014. Detail of developed and undeveloped acreage positions at December 31, 2016, Drilling Activity, and Cumulative Well Status are presented in Tables in Item 2 of this filing. Our net cumulative investment through December 31, 2016 in undeveloped acres in the Viking AMI was $1,387,928. In addition the company has incurred $133,468 as its share of costs related to the early stages of the construction of a gas pipeline which was to serve the Viking AMI.
 
 
 
8
 
 
ITEM 1.    BUSINESS - continued
 
Rosedale AMI
 
In January of 2014 we contracted for a 25% Working Interest in approximately 5,000 acres in the Rosedale AMI consisting of eight townships in South Central Oklahoma. We subsequently acquired an additional 5% in May, 2014. The Company had an interest in 11,600 total acres as of December 31, 2016 (Net undeveloped acres = 3,500). Detail of developed and undeveloped acreage positions at December 31, 2016 is presented in the Table in Item 2 of this filing. Our cumulative investment through December 31, 2016 in the Rosedale AMI was $2,833,744.
 
Prairie Grove – Judy Well
 
In February of 2014, we acquired a 10% Working Interest in a well in the Prairie Grove AMI from a non-consenting third party who elected not to participate in the well.
 
Thunderbird AMI
 
In July of 2014, we contracted for a 25% Working Interest in the Thunderbird AMI. The total acres in which the Company has an interest at December 31, 2016 totals 4,300 acres (Net undeveloped acres = 1,100). Detail of developed and undeveloped acreage positions at December 31, 2016 is presented in the Table in Item 2 of this filing. Our cumulative investment through December 31, 2016 in the T4 AMI was $949,530.
 
Industry and Business Environment
 
Currently, we are experiencing a time of lower oil prices caused by lower demand, higher US Supply, and OPEC’s policies on production.   Unfortunately, this is the cyclical nature of the oil and gas industry.  We experience highs and lows that seem to come in cycles.  Fortunately, advances in technology drive the US market and we feel this will drive the development costs down on our exploration and drilling programs.
 
Competition
 
The oil and natural gas industry is intensely competitive, and we will compete with numerous other companies engaged in the exploration and production of oil and gas.  Some of these companies have substantially greater resources than we have.  Not only do they explore for and produce oil and natural gas, but also many carry on midstream and refining operations and market petroleum and other products on a regional, national, or worldwide basis.  The operations of other companies may be able to pay more for exploratory prospects and productive oil and natural gas properties.  They may also have more resources to define, evaluate, bid for, and purchase a greater number of properties and prospects than our financial or human resources permit.
 
Our larger or integrated competitors may have the resources to be better able to absorb the burden of current and future federal, state, and local laws and regulations more easily than we can, which would adversely affect our competitive position.  Our ability to locate reserves and acquire interests in properties in the future will be dependent upon our ability and resources to evaluate and select suitable properties and consummate transactions in this highly competitive environment.  In addition, we may be at a disadvantage in producing oil and natural gas properties and bidding for exploratory prospects because we have fewer financial and human resources than other companies in our industry.  Should a larger and better financed company decide to directly compete with us, and be successful in its efforts, our business could be adversely affected.
 
 
 
 
9
 
 
ITEM 1.    BUSINESS - continued
 
Marketing and Customers
 
The market for oil and natural gas that we will produce depends on factors beyond our control, including the extent of domestic production and imports of oil and natural gas, the proximity and capacity of natural gas pipelines and other transportation facilities, demand for oil and natural gas, the marketing of competitive fuels, and the effects of state and federal regulation.  The oil and gas industry also competes with other industries in supplying the energy and fuel requirements of industrial, commercial, and individual consumers.
 
Our oil production is expected to be sold at prices tied to the spot oil markets.  Our natural gas production is expected to be sold under short-term contracts and priced based on first of the month index prices or on daily spot market prices.  We will rely on our operating partners to market and sell our production.
 
Governmental Regulation and Environmental Matters
 
Our operations are subject to various rules, regulations, and limitations impacting the oil and natural gas exploration and production industry as a whole.
  
Regulation of Oil and Natural Gas Production
 
Our oil and natural gas exploration, production, and related operations, when developed, will be subject to extensive rules and regulations promulgated by federal, state, tribal, and local authorities and agencies.  Certain states may also have statutes or regulations addressing conservation matters, including provisions for the unitization or pooling of oil and natural gas properties, the establishment of maximum rates of production from wells, and the regulation of spacing, plugging, and abandonment of such wells.  Failure to comply with any such rules and regulations can result in substantial penalties.  The regulatory burden on the oil and gas industry will most likely increase our cost of doing business and may affect our profitability.  Although we believe we are currently in substantial compliance with all applicable laws and regulations, because such rules and regulations are frequently amended or reinterpreted, we are unable to predict the future cost or impact of complying with such laws.  Significant expenditures may be required to comply with governmental laws and regulations and may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
 
Environmental Matters
 
Our operations and properties are and will be subject to extensive and changing federal, state, and local laws and regulations relating to environmental protection, including the generation, storage, handling, emission, transportation, and discharge of materials into the environment, and relating to safety and health.  The recent trend in environmental legislation and regulation generally is toward stricter standards, and this trend will likely continue.  These laws and regulations may:
 
·           require the acquisition of a permit or other authorization before construction or drilling commences and for certain other activities;
·           limit or prohibit construction, drilling, and other activities on certain lands lying within wilderness and other protected areas;
·           impose substantial liabilities for pollution resulting from operations; or
·           restrict certain areas from fracking and other stimulation techniques.
 
The permits required for our operations may be subject to revocation, modification, and renewal by issuing authorities. Governmental authorities have the power to enforce their regulations, and violations are subject to fines or injunctions, or both. In the opinion of management, we are and will be in substantial compliance with current applicable environmental laws and regulations, and have no material commitments for capital expenditures to comply with existing environmental requirements. Nevertheless, changes in existing environmental laws and regulations or in interpretations thereof could have a significant impact on our company, as well as the oil and natural gas industry in general.
 
The Comprehensive Environmental, Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (“CERCLA”) and comparable state statutes impose strict, joint, and several liability on owners and operators of sites and on persons who disposed of or arranged for the disposal of “hazardous substances” found at such sites.  It is not uncommon for the neighboring landowners and other third parties to file claims for personal injury and property damage allegedly caused by the hazardous substances released into the environment.  The Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (“RCRA”) and comparable state statutes govern the disposal of “solid waste” and “hazardous waste” and authorize the imposition of substantial fines and penalties for noncompliance. Although CERCLA currently excludes petroleum from its definition of “hazardous substance,” state laws affecting our operations may impose clean-up liability relating to petroleum and petroleum related products.  In addition, although RCRA classifies certain oil field wastes as “non-hazardous,” such exploration and production wastes could be reclassified as hazardous wastes thereby making such wastes subject to more stringent handling and disposal requirements.
 
 
10
 
 
ITEM 1.    BUSINESS - continued
 
The Endangered Species Act (“ESA”) seeks to ensure that activities do not jeopardize endangered or threatened animal, fish, and plant species, nor destroy or modify the critical habitat of such species.  Under ESA, exploration and production operations, as well as actions by federal agencies, may not significantly impair or jeopardize the species or its habitat.  ESA provides for criminal penalties for willful violations of the Act.  Other statutes that provide protection to animal and plant species and that may apply to our operations include, but are not necessarily limited to, the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, the Fishery Conservation and Management Act, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and the National Historic Preservation Act.  Although we believe that our operations will be in substantial compliance with such statutes, any change in these statutes or any reclassification of a species as endangered could subject our company to significant expenses to modify our operations or could force our company to discontinue certain operations altogether.
 
Climate Change
 
Significant studies and research have been devoted to climate change and global warming, and climate change has developed into a major political issue in the United States and globally.  Certain research suggests that greenhouse gas emissions contribute to climate change and pose a threat to the environment.  Recent scientific research and political debate has focused in part on carbon dioxide and methane incidental to oil and natural gas exploration and production.  Many states and the federal government have enacted legislation directed at controlling greenhouse gas emissions, and future legislation and regulation could impose additional restrictions or requirements in connection with our drilling and production activities and favor use of alternative energy sources, which could affect operating costs and demand for oil products.  As such, our business could be materially adversely affected by domestic and international legislation targeted at controlling climate change.
  
Employees
 
We currently have four full time employees and no part time employees.  We anticipate adding additional employees, when adequate funds are available, and using independent contractors, consultants, attorneys, and accountants as necessary to complement services rendered by our employees.  We presently have independent technical professionals under consulting agreements who are available to us on an as needed basis.
 
Research and Development
 
We did not spend any funds on research and development activities during years ended December 31, 2016 or 2015.
 
ITEM 1A.  RISK FACTORS
 
An investment in us involves a high degree of risk and is suitable only for prospective investors with substantial financial means who have no need for liquidity and can afford the entire loss of their investment in us.  Prospective investors should carefully consider the following risk factors, in addition to the other information contained in this report.
 
Risks Related to the Company and the Industry
 
We have a limited operating history relative to larger companies in our industry, and may not be successful in developing profitable business operations.
 
We have a limited operating history relative to larger companies in our industry.  Our business operations must be considered in light of the risks, expenses and difficulties frequently encountered in establishing a business in the oil and natural gas industries.  As of the date of this report, we have generated limited revenues and have limited assets.  We have an insufficient history at this time on which to base an assumption that our business operations will prove to be successful in the long-term.  Our future operating results will depend on many factors, including:
 
· 
our ability to raise adequate working capital;
· 
the success of our development and exploration;
· 
the demand for natural gas and oil;
· 
the level of our competition;
· 
our ability to attract and maintain key management and employees; and
· 
our ability to efficiently explore, develop, produce or acquire sufficient quantities of marketable natural gas or oil in a highly competitive and speculative environment while maintaining quality and controlling costs.
 
To achieve profitable operations in the future, we must, alone or with others, successfully manage the factors stated above, as well as continue to develop ways to enhance our production efforts.  Despite our best efforts, we may not be successful in our exploration or development efforts, or obtain required regulatory approvals.  There is a possibility that some, or all, of the wells in which we obtain interests may never produce oil or natural gas.
 
 
11
 
 
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS - continued
 
We have limited capital and will need to raise additional capital in the future.
 
We do not currently have sufficient capital to fund both our continuing operations and our planned growth.  We will require additional capital to continue to grow our business via acquisitions and to further expand our exploration and development programs.  We may be unable to obtain additional capital when required.  Future acquisitions and future exploration, development, production and marketing activities, as well as our administrative requirements (such as salaries, insurance expenses and general overhead expenses, as well as legal compliance costs and accounting expenses) will require a substantial amount of additional capital and cash flow.
 
We may pursue sources of additional capital through various financing transactions or arrangements, including joint venturing of projects, debt financing, equity financing, or other means.  We may not be successful in identifying suitable financing transactions in the time period required or at all, and we may not obtain the capital we require by other means.  If we do not succeed in raising additional capital, our resources may not be sufficient to fund our planned operations.
 
Our ability to obtain financing, if and when necessary, may be impaired by such factors as the capital markets (both generally and in the oil and gas industry in particular), our limited operating history, the location of our oil and natural gas properties and prices of oil and natural gas on the commodities markets (which will impact the amount of asset-based financing available to us, if any) and the departure of key employees.  Further, if oil or natural gas prices on the commodities markets decline, our future revenues, if any, will likely decrease and such decreased revenues may increase our requirements for capital.  If the amount of capital we are able to raise from financing activities, together with our revenues from operations, is not sufficient to satisfy our capital needs (even to the extent that we reduce our operations), we may be required to cease our operations, divest our assets at unattractive prices or obtain financing on unattractive terms.
 
Any additional capital raised through the sale of equity may dilute the ownership percentage of our stockholders.  Raising any such capital could also result in a decrease in the fair market value of our equity securities because our assets would be owned by a larger pool of outstanding equity.  The terms of securities we issue in future capital transactions may be more favorable to our new investors, and may include preferences, superior voting rights and the issuance of other derivative securities, and issuances of incentive awards under equity employee incentive plans, which may have a further dilutive effect.
 
We may incur substantial costs in pursuing future capital financing, including investment banking fees, legal fees, accounting fees, securities law compliance fees, printing and distribution expenses and other costs.  We may also be required to recognize non-cash expenses in connection with certain securities we may issue, which may adversely impact our financial condition. 
 
Our auditor indicated that certain factors raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.
 
The financial statements included with this report are presented under the assumption that we will continue as a going concern, which contemplates the realization of assets and the satisfaction of liabilities in the normal course of business over a reasonable length of time. We had a net loss of approximately $7.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 and an accumulated deficit in aggregate of approximately $82.6 million at year end.  We are not generating sufficient operating cash flows to support continuing operations, and expect to incur further losses in the development of our business.
 
In our financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2016, our auditor indicated that certain factors raised substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.  These factors included our accumulated deficit, as well as the fact that we were not generating sufficient cash flows to meet our regular working capital requirements.  Our ability to continue as a going concern is dependent upon our ability to generate future profitable operations and/or to obtain the necessary financing to meet our obligations and repay our liabilities arising from normal business operations when they come due. Management's plan to address our ability to continue as a going concern includes: (1) obtaining debt or equity funding from private placement or institutional sources; (2) obtaining loans from financial institutions, where possible, or (3) participating in joint venture transactions with third parties. Although management believes that it will be able to obtain the necessary funding to allow us to remain a going concern through the methods discussed above, there can be no assurances that such methods will prove successful. The accompanying financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.
 
As a non-operator, our development of successful operations relies extensively on third-parties who, if not successful, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operation.
 
We expect to primarily participate in wells operated by third-parties.   As a result, we will not control the timing of the development, exploitation, production and exploration activities relating to leasehold interests we acquire.  We do, however, have certain rights as granted in our Joint Operating Agreements that allow us a certain degree of freedom such as, but not limited to, the ability to propose the drilling of wells.    If our drilling partners are not successful in such activities relating to our leasehold interests, or are unable or unwilling to perform, our financial condition and results of operation could have an adverse material effect.  
 
 
12
 
 
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS - continued
 
Further, financial risks are inherent in any operation where the cost of drilling, equipping, completing and operating wells is shared by more than one person.  We could be held liable for the joint activity obligations of the operator or other working interest owners such as nonpayment of costs and liabilities arising from the actions of the working interest owners.  In the event the operator or other working interest owners do not pay their share of such costs, we would likely have to pay those costs.  In such situations, if we were unable to pay those costs, there could be a material adverse effect to our financial position.
 
Because of the speculative nature of oil and gas exploration, there is risk that we will not find commercially exploitable oil and gas and that our business will fail.
 
The search for commercial quantities of oil and natural gas as a business is extremely risky. We cannot provide investors with any assurance that any properties in which we obtain a mineral interest will contain commercially exploitable quantities of oil and/or gas.  The exploration expenditures to be made by us may not result in the discovery of commercial quantities of oil and/or gas.  Problems such as unusual or unexpected formations or pressures, premature declines of reservoirs, invasion of water into producing formations and other conditions involved in oil and gas exploration often result in unsuccessful exploration efforts. If we are unable to find commercially exploitable quantities of oil and gas, and/or we are unable to commercially extract such quantities, we may be forced to abandon or curtail our business plan, and as a result, any investment in us may become worthless.
 
Strategic relationships upon which we may rely are subject to change, which may diminish our ability to conduct our operations.
  
Our ability to successfully acquire oil and gas interests, to build our reserves, to participate in drilling opportunities and to identify and enter into commercial arrangements with customers will depend on developing and maintaining close working relationships with industry participants and our ability to select and evaluate suitable properties and to consummate transactions in a highly competitive environment.  These realities are subject to change and our inability to maintain close working relationships with industry participants or continue to acquire suitable property may impair our ability to execute our business plan.
 
To continue to develop our business, we will endeavor to use the business relationships of our management to enter into strategic relationships, which may take the form of joint ventures with other private parties and contractual arrangements with other oil and gas companies, including those that supply equipment and other resources that we will use in our business.  We may not be able to establish these strategic relationships, or if established, we may not be able to maintain them.  In addition, the dynamics of our relationships with strategic partners may require us to incur expenses or undertake activities we would not otherwise be inclined to in order to fulfill our obligations to these partners or maintain our relationships.  If our strategic relationships are not established or maintained, our business prospects may be limited, which could diminish our ability to conduct our operations.
 
The price of oil and natural gas has historically been volatile.  If it were to decrease substantially, our projections, budgets, and revenues would be adversely affected, potentially forcing us to make changes in our operations.
 
Our future financial condition, results of operations and the carrying value of any oil and natural gas interests we acquire will depend primarily upon the prices paid for oil and natural gas production. Oil and natural gas prices historically have been volatile and likely will continue to be volatile in the future, especially given current world geopolitical conditions. Our cash flows from operations are highly dependent on the prices that we receive for oil and natural gas. This price volatility also affects the amount of our cash flows available for capital expenditures and our ability to borrow money or raise additional capital. The prices for oil and natural gas are subject to a variety of additional factors that are beyond our control. These factors include:
 
· 
the level of consumer demand for oil and natural gas;
· 
the domestic and foreign supply of oil and natural gas;
· 
the ability of the members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries ("OPEC") to agree to and maintain oil price and production controls;
· 
the price of foreign oil and natural gas;
· 
domestic governmental regulations and taxes;
· 
the price and availability of alternative fuel sources;
· 
weather conditions;
· 
market uncertainty due to political conditions in oil and natural gas producing regions, including the Middle East; and
· 
worldwide economic conditions.
 
 
 
 
13
 
 
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS - continued
 
These factors as well as the volatility of the energy markets generally make it extremely difficult to predict future oil and natural gas price movements with any certainty. Declines in oil and natural gas prices affect our revenues, and could reduce the amount of oil and natural gas that we can produce economically.  Accordingly, such declines could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, oil and natural gas reserves and the carrying values of our oil and natural gas properties. If the oil and natural gas industry experiences significant price declines, we may be unable to make planned expenditures, among other things. If this were to happen, we may be forced to abandon or curtail our business operations, which would cause the value of an investment in us to decline in value, or become worthless.
 
If oil or natural gas prices remain depressed or drilling efforts are unsuccessful, we may be required to record additional write downs of our oil and natural gas properties.
 
If oil or natural gas prices remain depressed or drilling efforts are unsuccessful, we could be required to write down the carrying value of certain of our oil and natural gas properties.  Write downs may occur when oil and natural gas prices are low, or if we have downward adjustments to our estimated proved reserves, increases in our estimates of operating or development costs, deterioration in drilling results or mechanical problems with wells where the cost to re drill or repair is not supported by the expected economics.
 
Under the full cost method of accounting, capitalized oil and gas property costs less accumulated depletion and net of deferred income taxes may not exceed an amount equal to the present value, discounted at 10%, of estimated future net revenues from proved oil and gas reserves plus the cost of unproved properties not subject to amortization (without regard to estimates of fair value), or estimated fair value, if lower, of unproved properties that are subject to amortization.  Should capitalized costs exceed this ceiling, an impairment would be recognized. 
 
The Company recognized impairment of $22,438,114 on its oil and gas properties at June 30, 2015 and an additional Impairment adjustment of $3,236,009 was made at December 31, 2015 for a total impairment charge of $25,674,123 for the year 2015.
 
During the year ended December 31, 2016 the Company performed assessments of evaluated and unevaluated costs in the cost pool to conform the cumulative value of the Full Cost Pool to the combined amount of Reserve Value of evaluated, producing properties (as determined by independent analysis at December 31, 2015), plus the lesser of cumulative historical cost or estimated realizable value of unevaluated leases and projects expected to commence production in future operating periods. The results of the assessment was an additional impairment charge of $70,080 for 2016.
  
Because of the inherent dangers involved in oil and gas operations, there is a risk that we may incur liability or damages as we conduct our business operations, which could force us to expend a substantial amount of money in connection with litigation and/or a settlement.
 
The oil and natural gas business involves a variety of operating hazards and risks such as well blowouts, pipe failures, casing collapse, explosions, uncontrollable flows of oil, natural gas or well fluids, fires, spills, pollution, releases of toxic gas and other environmental hazards and risks. These hazards and risks could result in substantial losses to us from, among other things, injury or loss of life, severe damage to or destruction of property, natural resources and equipment, pollution or other environmental damage, cleanup responsibilities, regulatory investigation and penalties and suspension of operations. In addition, we may be liable for environmental damages caused by previous owners of property purchased and leased by us. In recent years, there has also been increased scrutiny on the environmental risk associated with hydraulic fracturing, such as underground migration and surface spillage or mishandling of fracturing fluids including chemical additives. As a result, substantial liabilities to third parties or governmental entities may be incurred, the payment of which could reduce or eliminate the funds available for exploration, development or acquisitions or result in the loss of our properties and/or force us to expend substantial monies in connection with litigation or settlements. We currently have no insurance to cover such losses and liabilities, and even if insurance is obtained, there can be no assurance that it will be adequate to cover any losses or liabilities. We cannot predict the availability of insurance or the availability of insurance at premium levels that justify our purchase. The occurrence of a significant event not fully insured or indemnified against could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and operations. We may elect to self-insure if management believes that the cost of insurance, although available, is excessive relative to the risks presented. In addition, pollution and environmental risks generally are not fully insurable. The occurrence of an event not fully covered by insurance could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations, which could lead to any investment in us becoming worthless.
 
The market for oil and gas is intensely competitive, and competition pressures could force us to abandon or curtail our business plan.
 
 
 
 
14
 
 
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS - continued
 
The market for oil and gas exploration services is highly competitive, and we only expect competition to intensify in the future. Numerous well-established companies are focusing significant resources on exploration and are currently competing with us for oil and gas opportunities.  Other oil and gas companies may seek to acquire oil and gas leases and properties that we have targeted.  Additionally, other companies engaged in our line of business may compete with us from time to time in obtaining capital from investors.  Competitors include larger companies which, in particular, may have access to greater resources, may be more successful in the recruitment and retention of qualified employees and may conduct their own refining and petroleum marketing operations, which may give them a competitive advantage.  Actual or potential competitors may be strengthened through the acquisition of additional assets and interests.  Additionally, there are numerous companies focusing their resources on creating fuels and/or materials which serve the same purpose as oil and gas, but are manufactured from renewable resources.
 
As a result, there can be no assurance that we will be able to compete successfully or that competitive pressures will not adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition. If we are not able to successfully compete in the marketplace, we could be forced to curtail or even abandon our current business plan, which could cause any investment in us to become worthless.
 
We may not be able to successfully manage our growth, which could lead to our inability to implement our business plan.
 
Our growth may place a significant strain on our managerial, operational and financial resources, especially considering that we currently only have a small number of executive officers, employees and advisors. Further, as we enter into additional contracts, we will be required to manage multiple relationships with various consultants, businesses and other third parties. These requirements will be exacerbated in the event of our further growth or in the event that the number of our drilling and/or extraction operations increases. There can be no assurance that our systems, procedures and/or controls will be adequate to support our operations or that our management will be able to achieve the rapid execution necessary to successfully implement our business plan. If we are unable to manage our growth effectively, our business, results of operations and financial condition will be adversely affected, which could lead to us being forced to abandon or curtail our business plan and operations.
  
Our operations are heavily dependent on current environmental regulation, changes in which we cannot predict.
 
Oil and natural gas activities that we will engage in, including production, processing, handling and disposal of hazardous materials, such as hydrocarbons and naturally occurring radioactive materials (if any), are subject to stringent regulation. We could incur significant costs, including cleanup costs resulting from a release of hazardous material, third-party claims for property damage and personal injuries fines and sanctions, as a result of any violations or liabilities under environmental or other laws. Changes in or more stringent enforcement of environmental laws could force us to expend additional operating costs and capital expenditures to stay in compliance.
 
Various federal, state and local laws regulating the discharge of materials into the environment, or otherwise relating to the protection of the environment, directly impact oil and gas exploration, development and production operations, and consequently may impact our operations and costs. These regulations include, among others, (i) regulations by the Environmental Protection Agency and various state agencies regarding approved methods of disposal for certain hazardous and non-hazardous wastes; (ii) the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and analogous state laws which regulate the removal or remediation of previously disposed wastes (including wastes disposed of or released by prior owners or operators), property contamination (including groundwater contamination), and remedial plugging operations to prevent future contamination; (iii) the Clean Air Act and comparable state and local requirements which may result in the gradual imposition of certain pollution control requirements with respect to air emissions from our operations; (iv) the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 which contains numerous requirements relating to the prevention of and response to oil spills into waters of the United States; (v) the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act which is the principal federal statute governing the treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous wastes; and (vi) state regulations and statutes governing the handling, treatment, storage and disposal of naturally occurring radioactive material.
  
Management believes that we will be in substantial compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations. To date, we have not expended any amounts to comply with such regulations, and management does not currently anticipate that future compliance will have a materially adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows. However, if we are deemed to not be in compliance with applicable environmental laws, we could be forced to expend substantial amounts to be in compliance, which would have a materially adverse effect on our financial condition. If this were to happen, any investment in us could be lost.
 
Government regulatory initiatives relating to hydraulic fracturing could result in increased costs and additional operating restrictions or delays.
 
 
 
 
15
 
 
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS - continued
 
Vast quantities of natural gas, natural gas liquids and oil deposits exist in deep shale and other unconventional formations. It is customary in our industry to recover these resources through the use of hydraulic fracturing, combined with horizontal drilling. Hydraulic fracturing is the process of creating or expanding cracks, or fractures, in deep underground formations using water, sand and other additives pumped under high pressure into the formation. As with the rest of the industry, our third-party operating partners use hydraulic fracturing as a means to increase the productivity of most of the wells they drill and complete. These formations are generally geologically separated and isolated from fresh ground water supplies by thousands of feet of impermeable rock layers.
 
We believe our third-party operating partners follow applicable legal requirements for groundwater protection in their operations that are subject to supervision by state and federal regulators.  Furthermore, we believe our third-party operating partners’ well construction practices are specifically designed to protect freshwater aquifers by preventing the migration of fracturing fluids into aquifers.
 
Hydraulic fracturing is typically regulated by state oil and gas commissions. Some states have adopted, and other states are considering adopting, regulations that could impose more stringent permitting, public disclosure, and/or well construction requirements on hydraulic fracturing operations.  For example, Pennsylvania is considering proposed regulations applicable to surface use at oil and gas well sites, including new secondary containment requirements and an abandoned and orphaned well identification program that would require operators to remediate any such wells that are damaged during current hydraulic fracturing operations.  New York has placed a permit moratorium on high volume fracturing activities combined with horizontal drilling pending the results of a study regarding the safety of hydraulic fracturing. And certain communities in Colorado have also enacted bans on hydraulic fracturing.
 
In addition to state laws, some local municipalities have adopted or are considering adopting land use restrictions, such as city ordinances, that may restrict or prohibit the performance of well drilling in general and/or hydraulic fracturing in particular. There are also certain governmental reviews either underway or being proposed that focus on deep shale and other formation completion and production practices, including hydraulic fracturing. Depending on the outcome of these studies, federal and state legislatures and agencies may seek to further regulate such activities. Certain environmental and other groups have also suggested that additional federal, state and local laws and regulations may be needed to more closely regulate the hydraulic fracturing process.
 
Further, the EPA has asserted federal regulatory authority over hydraulic fracturing involving “diesel fuels” under the SWDA’s UIC Program. In February 2014, the EPA released its final guidance on the use of diesel additives in hydraulic fracturing operations. The EPA is also engaged in a study of the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing activities on drinking water resources in these states where the EPA is the permitted authority, including Pennsylvania, with a progress report released in late 2012 and a draft report released in June 2015. It concluded that hydraulic fracturing activities have not led to widespread systematic impacts on drinking water resources in the U.S., but there are above and below ground mechanisms by which hydraulic fracturing could affect drinking water resources. In addition, in March 2015, the Bureau of Land Management (“BLM”) issued a final rule to regulate hydraulic fracturing on federal and Indian land; however, enforcement of the rule has been delayed pending a decision in a legal challenge in the U.S. District Court of Wyoming. Further, the EPA issued an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in May 2014 seeking comments relating to the information that should be reported or disclosed for hydraulic fracturing chemical substances and mixtures and mechanisms for obtaining this information. These actions, in conjunction with other analyses by federal and state agencies to assess the impacts of hydraulic fracturing could spur further action toward federal and/or state legislation and regulation of hydraulic fracturing activities.
 
We cannot predict whether additional federal, state or local laws or regulations applicable to hydraulic fracturing will be enacted in the future and, if so, what actions any such laws or regulations would require or prohibit.  Restrictions on hydraulic fracturing could make it prohibitive for our third-party operating partners to conduct operations, and also reduce the amount of oil, natural gas liquids and natural gas that we are ultimately able to produce in commercial quantities from our properties.  If additional levels of regulation or permitting requirements were imposed on hydraulic fracturing operations, our business and operations could be subject to delays, increased operating and compliance costs and process prohibitions.
 
Our estimates of the volume of reserves could have flaws, or such reserves could turn out not to be commercially extractable. As a result, our future revenues and projections could be incorrect.
 
 
 
 
16
 
 
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS - continued
 
Estimates of reserves and of future net revenues prepared by different petroleum engineers may vary substantially depending, in part, on the assumptions made and may be subject to adjustment either up or down in the future. Our actual amounts of production, revenue, taxes, development expenditures, operating expenses, and quantities of recoverable oil and gas reserves may vary substantially from the estimates.  Oil and gas reserve estimates are necessarily inexact and involve matters of subjective engineering judgment. In addition, any estimates of our future net revenues and the present value thereof are based on assumptions derived in part from historical price and cost information, which may not reflect current and future values, and/or other assumptions made by us that only represent our best estimates. If these estimates of quantities, prices and costs prove inaccurate, we may be unsuccessful in expanding our oil and gas reserves base with our acquisitions. Additionally, if declines in and instability of oil and gas prices occur, then write downs in the capitalized costs associated with any oil and gas assets we obtain may be required. Because of the nature of the estimates of our reserves and estimates in general, we can provide no assurance that reductions to our estimated proved oil and gas reserves and estimated future net revenues will not be required in the future, and/or that our estimated reserves will be present and/or commercially extractable. If our reserve estimates are incorrect, the value of our common stock could decrease and we may be forced to write down the capitalized costs of our oil and gas properties.
 
Decommissioning costs are unknown and may be substantial.  Unplanned costs could divert resources from other projects.
 
We may become responsible for costs associated with abandoning and reclaiming wells, facilities and pipelines which we use for production of oil and natural gas reserves.  Abandonment and reclamation of these facilities and the costs associated therewith is often referred to as “decommissioning.”  We accrue a liability for decommissioning costs associated with our wells, but have not established any cash reserve account for these potential costs in respect of any of our properties.  If decommissioning is required before economic depletion of our properties or if our estimates of the costs of decommissioning exceed the value of the reserves remaining at any particular time to cover such decommissioning costs, we may have to draw on funds from other sources to satisfy such costs.  The use of other funds to satisfy such decommissioning costs could impair our ability to focus capital investment in other areas of our business.
 
We may have difficulty distributing production, which could harm our financial condition.
 
In order to sell the oil and natural gas that we are able to produce, if any, the operators of the wells we obtain interests in may have to make arrangements for storage and distribution to the market.  We will rely on local infrastructure and the availability of transportation for storage and shipment of our products, but infrastructure development and storage and transportation facilities may be insufficient for our needs at commercially acceptable terms in the localities in which we operate.  This situation could be particularly problematic to the extent that our operations are conducted in remote areas that are difficult to access, such as areas that are distant from shipping and/or pipeline facilities. These factors may affect our and potential partners’ ability to explore and develop properties and to store and transport oil and natural gas production, increasing our expenses.
 
Furthermore, weather conditions or natural disasters, actions by companies doing business in one or more of the areas in which we will operate, or labor disputes may impair the distribution of oil and/or natural gas and in turn diminish our financial condition or ability to maintain our operations.
 
Our business will suffer if we cannot obtain or maintain necessary licenses.
 
Our operations will require licenses, permits and in some cases renewals of licenses and permits from various governmental authorities.  Our ability to obtain, sustain or renew such licenses and permits on acceptable terms is subject to change in regulations and policies and to the discretion of the applicable governments, among other factors.  Our inability to obtain, or our loss of or denial of extension of, any of these licenses or permits could hamper our ability to produce revenues from our operations.
 
Challenges to our properties may impact our financial condition.
 
Title to oil and gas interests is often not capable of conclusive determination without incurring substantial expense.  While we intend to make appropriate inquiries into the title of properties and other development rights we acquire, title defects may exist.  In addition, we may be unable to obtain adequate insurance for title defects, on a commercially reasonable basis or at all.  If title defects do exist, it is possible that we may lose all or a portion of our right, title and interests in and to the properties to which the title defects relate.  If our property rights are reduced, our ability to conduct our exploration, development and production activities may be impaired.  To mitigate title problems, common industry practice is to obtain a title opinion from a qualified oil and gas attorney prior to the drilling operations of a well.
 
We rely on technology to conduct our business, and our technology could become ineffective or obsolete.
 
 
 
 
17
 
 
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS - continued
 
We rely on technology, including geographic and seismic analysis techniques and economic models, to develop our reserve estimates and to guide our exploration, development and production activities.  We and our operator partners will be required to continually enhance and update our technology to maintain its efficacy and to avoid obsolescence.  The costs of doing so may be substantial and may be higher than the costs that we anticipate for technology maintenance and development.  If we are unable to maintain the efficacy of our technology, our ability to manage our business and to compete may be impaired.  Further, even if we are able to maintain technical effectiveness, our technology may not be the most efficient means of reaching our objectives, in which case we may incur higher operating costs than we would were our technology more efficient.
 
The loss of key personnel would directly affect our efficiency and profitability.
 
Our future success is dependent, in a large part, on retaining the services of our current management team.  Our executive officers possess a unique and comprehensive knowledge of our industry and related matters that are vital to our success within the industry.  The knowledge, leadership and technical expertise of these individuals would be difficult to replace.  The loss of one or more of our officers could have a material adverse effect on our operating and financial performance, including our ability to develop and execute our long term business strategy.  We do not maintain key-man life insurance with respect to any employees.  We do have employment agreements with each of our executive officers.  There can be no assurance, however, that any of our officers will continue to be employed by us.
 
Our officers and directors control a significant percentage of our current outstanding common stock and their interests may conflict with those of our stockholders.
 
As of the date of this report, our executive officers and directors collectively and beneficially own approximately 28.82% of our outstanding common stock (see Item 12 of this report for an explanation of how this number is computed).  This concentration of voting control gives these affiliates substantial influence over any matters which require a stockholder vote, including without limitation the election of directors and approval of merger and/or acquisition transactions, even if their interests may conflict with those of other stockholders.  It could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control or otherwise discouraging a potential acquirer from attempting to obtain control of us.  This could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock or prevent our stockholders from realizing a premium over the then prevailing market prices for their shares of common stock.
 
In the future, we may incur significant increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management may be required to devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives.
 
In the future, we may incur significant legal, accounting, and other expenses as a result of operating as a public company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), as well as new rules subsequently implemented by the SEC, have imposed various requirements on public companies, including requiring changes in corporate governance practices. Our management and other personnel will need to devote a substantial amount of time to these new compliance initiatives. Moreover, these rules and regulations will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. For example, we expect these new rules and regulations to make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to incur substantial costs to maintain the same or similar coverage.
 
In addition, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective internal controls for financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures. In particular, we are required to perform system and process evaluation and testing on the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting, as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. In performing this evaluation and testing, management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting is not effective as of December 31, 2016 because of a material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting.  We are, however, addressing the issue and updating of our policies and procedures. Upon finalizing these policies and procedures and ensuring they are effectively applied, we believe our internal control will be deemed effective. Correcting this issue, and thereafter our continued compliance with Section 404, will require that we incur substantial accounting expense and expend significant management efforts. We currently do not have an internal audit group, and we will need to engage independent professional assistance. Moreover, if we are not able to correct our internal control issues and comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner, or if in the future we or our independent registered public accounting firm identifies other deficiencies in our internal controls over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses, the market price of our stock could decline, and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which would require additional financial and management resources.
 
We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting which could, if not remediated, adversely affect our ability to report our financial condition and results of operations in a timely and accurate manner.
 
 
 
 
18
 
 
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS - continued
 
Management, including our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer, assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2016 and concluded that we did not maintain effective internal control over financial reporting. Specifically, management identified material weaknesses over the accounting for stock options issued to employees and nonemployees and stock warrants issued for services, property and financings—see Item 9A, “Controls and Procedures,” below. This control deficiency resulted in audit adjustments in preparation of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The impact on previously issued financial statements was not determined to be significant. While certain actions have been taken to enhance our internal control over financial reporting relating to this material weaknesses, we are still in the process of implementing our comprehensive remediation plan. If the material weakness is not remediated, it could adversely affect our ability to report our financial condition and results of operations in a timely and accurate manner, which could negatively affect investor confidence in our company, and, as a result, the value of our common stock could be adversely affected.
 
Certain Factors Related to Our Common Stock
 
There presently is a limited market for our common stock, and the price of our common stock may be volatile.
 
Our common stock is currently quoted on The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC. There could be volatility in the volume and market price of our common stock moving forward.  This volatility may be caused by a variety of factors, including the lack of readily available quotations, the absence of consistent administrative supervision of “bid” and “ask” quotations, and generally lower trading volume. In addition, factors such as quarterly variations in our operating results, changes in financial estimates by securities analysts, or our failure to meet our or their projected financial and operating results, litigation involving us, factors relating to the oil and gas industry, actions by governmental agencies, national economic and stock market considerations, as well as other events and circumstances beyond our control could have a significant impact on the future market price of our common stock and the relative volatility of such market price.
 
Offers or availability for sale of a substantial number of shares of our common stock may cause the price of our common stock to decline.
 
Our stockholders could sell substantial amounts of common stock in the public market, including shares sold upon the filing of a registration statement that registers such shares and/or upon the expiration of any statutory holding period under Rule 144 of the Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”), if available, or upon the expiration of trading limitation periods.  Such volume could create a circumstance commonly referred to as a market “overhang” and in anticipation of which the market price of our common stock could fall. Additionally, we have a large number of warrants that are presently exercisable. The exercise of a large amount of these securities followed by the subsequent sale of the underlying stock in the market would likely have a negative effect on our common stock’s market price. The existence of an overhang, whether or not sales have occurred or are occurring, also could make it more difficult for us to secure additional financing through the sale of equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and price that we deem reasonable or appropriate.
 
Our directors and officers have rights to indemnification.
 
Our Bylaws provide, as permitted by governing Nevada law, that we will indemnify our directors, officers, and employees, whether or not then in service as such, against all reasonable expenses actually and necessarily incurred by him or her in connection with the defense of any litigation to which the individual may have been made a party because he or she is or was a director, officer, or employee of the company.  The inclusion of these provisions in the Bylaws may have the effect of reducing the likelihood of derivative litigation against directors and officers, and may discourage or deter stockholders or management from bringing a lawsuit against directors and officers for breach of their duty of care, even though such an action, if successful, might otherwise have benefited us and our stockholders.
 
We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock.
 
We do not anticipate paying cash dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future.  The payment of dividends, if any, would be contingent upon our revenues and earnings, if any, capital requirements, and general financial condition.  The payment of any dividends will be within the discretion of our Board of Directors.  We presently intend to retain all earnings, if any, to implement our business strategy; accordingly, we do not anticipate the declaration of any dividends in the foreseeable future.
 
ITEM 1B.  UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
 
Not Applicable.
 
 
 
 
19
 
 
ITEM 2.     PROPERTIES
 
Our principal executive offices are located at 5700 W. Plano Parkway, Suite 3600, Plano, Texas 75093. We currently lease this office space which totals approximately 3,181 square feet.  We believe that the condition and size of our offices are adequate for our current needs.
 
Investment in oil and gas properties during the years ended December 31,2016 and 2015 is detailed as follows:
 
 
 
2016
 
 
2015
 
Property acquisition costs
 $615,000 
 $- 
Development costs
  1,678,497 
  4,518,239 
Exploratory costs
  - 
  - 
 
    
    
Totals
 $2,293,497 
 $4,518,239 
 
Property acquisition cost relates to the Company’s acquisition of the Hazel Project in West Texas. The development costs include reentry of the Johnson #4 well in the south Texas Marcelina area (sold in 2016) and development costs in the Orogrande and Hazel projects in west Texas. No development costs were incurred for Oklahoma properties in 2016.
 
Oil and Natural Gas Reserves
 
Reserve Estimates
 
SEC Case. The following tables sets forth, as of December 31, 2016, our estimated net proved oil and natural gas reserves, the estimated present value (discounted at an annual rate of 10%) of estimated future net revenues before future income taxes (PV-10) and after future income taxes (Standardized Measure) of our proved reserves and our estimated net probable oil and natural gas reserves, each prepared using standard geological and engineering methods generally accepted by the petroleum industry and in accordance with assumptions prescribed by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).  All of our reserves are located in the United States.
 
The PV-10 value is a widely used measure of value of oil and natural gas assets and represents a pre-tax present value of estimated cash flows discounted at ten percent. PV-10 is considered a non-GAAP financial measure as defined by the SEC. We believe that our PV-10 presentation is relevant and useful to our investors because it presents the estimated discounted future net cash flows attributable to our proved reserves before taking into account the related future income taxes, as such taxes may differ among various companies.  We believe investors and creditors use PV-10 as a basis for comparison of the relative size and value of our proved reserves to the reserve estimates of other companies. PV-10 is not a measure of financial or operating performance under GAAP and neither it nor the Standardized Measure is intended to represent the current market value of our estimated oil and natural gas reserves. PV-10 should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for the standardized measure of discounted future net cash flows as defined under GAAP.
 
The estimates of our proved reserves and the PV-10 set forth herein reflect estimated future gross revenue to be generated from the production of proved reserves, net of estimated production and future development costs, using prices and costs under existing economic conditions at December 31, 2016. For purposes of determining prices, we used the average of prices received for each month within the 12-month period ended December 31, 2016, adjusted for quality and location differences, which was $42.75 per barrel of oil and $2.33 per MCF of gas.  This average historical price is not a prediction of future prices. The amounts shown do not give effect to non-property related expenses, such as corporate general administrative expenses and debt service, future income taxes or to depreciation, depletion and amortization.
 
 
 
20
 
 
ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES – continued
 
 
 
December 31, 2016  
 
 
December 31, 2016  
 
 
 
 Reserves    
 
 
Future Net Revenue (M$)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Present Value Discounted
 
Category
 
Oil (Bbls)
 
 
Gas (Mcf)
 
 
Total (BOE)
 
 
Total
 
 
at 10%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Proved Producing
  1,400 
  23,300 
  5,284 
 $31 
 $29 
Proved Nonproducing
  46,800 
  467,600 
  124,733 
 $776 
 $301 
Total Proved
  48,200 
  490,900 
  130,017 
 $807 
 $330 
 
    
    
    
    
    
Standardized Measure of Future Net Cash Flows Related to Proved Oil and Gas Properties
    
    
    
    
 $341 
 
    
    
    
    
    
Probable Undeveloped
 -
 -
 -
 $- 
 $- 
 
Reserve values as of December 31, 2016 are related to a single producing well in Oklahoma – the Judy well in the Prairie Grove AMI.
 
 
 
December 31, 2015
 
 
December 31, 2015
 
 
 
Reserves
 
 
Future Net Revenue (M$)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Present Value Discounted
 
Category
 
Oil (Bbls)
 
 
Gas (Mcf)
 
 
Total (BOE)
 
 
Total
 
 
at 10%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Proved Producing
  14,210 
  34,400 
  19,943 
 $322 
 $280 
Proved Nonproducing
  40,170 
  0 
  40,170 
 $860 
 $763 
Total Proved
  54,380 
  34,400 
  60,113 
 $1,182 
 $1,043 
 
    
    
    
    
    
Standardized Measure of Future Net Cash Flows Related to Proved Oil and Gas Properties
    
    
    
    
 $5,935
 
Probable Undeveloped
 -
 -
 -
 $- 
 $- 
 
BOE equivalents are determined by combining barrels of oil with MCF of gas divided by six.
 
 
 
 
 
 
21
 
 
ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES - continued
 
 
Standardized Measure of Oil & Gas Quantities - Volume Rollforward
 
 
Years Ended December 31, 2016 and 2015
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The following table sets forth the Company’s net proved reserves, including changes, and proved developed reserves:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2016    
 
 
2015    
 
 
 
Oil (Bbls)
 
 
Gas (Mcf)
 
 
BOE
 
 
Oil (Bbls)
 
 
Gas (Mcf)
 
 
BOE
 
TOTAL PROVED RESERVES:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Beginning of period
  54,380 
  34,400 
  60,113 
  914,400 
  3,790,650 
  1,546,175 
Acquisition
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
Extensions and discoveries
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
Divestiture of reserves
  (52,600)
  - 
  (52,600)
  (394,400)
  (2,483,950)
  (808,391)
Revisions of previous estimates
  54,908 
  493,013 
  137,078 
  (437,639)
  (1,159,071)
  (630,818)
Production
  (8,488)
  (36,513)
  (14,574)
  (27,981)
  (113,229)
  (46,853)
End of period
  48,200 
  490,900 
  130,017 
  54,380 
  34,400 
  60,113 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
PROVED DEVELOPED RESERVES
    
    
    
    
    
    
Proved developed producing
  1,400 
  23,300 
  5,284 
  14,210 
  34,400 
  19,943 
Proved nonproducing
  46,800 
  467,600 
  124,733 
  40,170 
  - 
  40,170 
Total
  48,200 
  490,900 
  130,017 
  54,380 
  34,400 
  60,113 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
Total Proved Undeveloped
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
 
The decrease attributable to divestiture of reserves is from the sale of Oklahoma properties - the Cimarron properties in second quarter, 2016.
 
The upward revisions of previous estimates of 54,908 Bbls and 493,013 MCF results primarily from 2016 reserve report calculations for the Company’s properties driven by industry conditions and the change in the proportional quantities of oil and gas in production from the Judy well in Oklahoma from 2015 to 2016.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22
 
 
ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES - continued
 
 
Standardized Measure of Oil & Gas Quantities
 
 
 
 
 
Year Ended December 31, 2016 and 2015
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The standardized measure of discounted future net cash flows relating
 
 
 
 
 
 
to proved oil and natural gas reserves is as follows :
 
2016
 
 
2015
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Future cash inflows
 $3,156,970 
 $2,410,202 
Future production costs
  (1,000,410)
  (1,169,591)
Future development costs
  (1,350,000)
  (58,575)
Future income tax expense
  - 
  5,818,722 
Future net cash flows
  806,560 
  7,000,758 
10% annual discount for estimated
    
    
timing of cash flows
  (465,644)
  (1,065,570)
Standardized measure of discounted future
    
    
net cash flows related to proved reserves
 $340,916 
 $5,935,188 
 
    
    
 
A summary of the changes in the standardized measure of discounted
    
    
future net cash flows applicable to proved oil and natural gas reserves
    
    
is as follows :
    
    
 
    
    
Balance, beginning of year
 $5,935,188 
 $23,018,966 
Sales and transfers of oil and gas produced during the period
  (29,749)
  (762,423)
Net change in sales and transfer prices and in production (lifting) costs related to future production
  (482,569)
  (18,010,821)
Net change due to sales of reserves
  - 
  (14,026,302)
Net change due to sales of minerals in place
  (191,470)
  - 
Net change due to extensions and discoveries
  - 
  - 
Changes in estimated future development costs
  (791,630)
  19,563,576 
Previously estimated development costs incurred during the period
  58,575 
  357,033 
Net change due to revisions in quantity estimates
  482,272 
  (11,062,826)
Other
  172,169 
  (858,606)
Accretion of discount
  80,393 
  2,146,235 
Net change in income taxes
  (4,892,263)
  5,570,356 
Balance, end of year
 $340,916 
 $5,935,188 
 
Due to the inherent uncertainties and the limited nature of reservoir data, both proved and probable reserves are subject to change as additional information becomes available. The estimates of reserves, future cash flows, and present value are based on various assumptions, including those prescribed by the SEC, and are inherently imprecise. Although we believe these estimates are reasonable, actual future production, cash flows, taxes, development expenditures, operating expenses, and quantities of recoverable oil and natural gas reserves may vary substantially from these estimates.
 
In estimating probable reserves, it should be noted that those reserve estimates inherently involve greater risk and uncertainty than estimates of proved reserves. While analysis of geoscience and engineering data provides reasonable certainty that proved reserves can be economically producible from known formations under existing conditions and within a reasonable time, probable reserves involve less certainty than reserves with a higher classification due to less data to support their ultimate recovery. Probable reserves have not been discounted for the additional risk associated with future recovery.  Prospective investors should be aware that as the categories of reserves decrease with certainty, the risk of recovering reserves at the PV-10 calculation increases.  The reserves and net present worth discounted at 10% relating to the different categories of proved and probable have not been adjusted for risk due to their uncertainty of recovery and thus are not comparable and should not be summed into total amounts.
 
 
 
 
23
 
 
ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES - continued
 
Reserve Estimation Process, Controls and Technologies
 
The reserve estimates, including PV-10 estimates, set forth above were prepared by PeTech Enterprises, Inc. for the Company’s properties in Oklahoma.  A copy of their full reports with regard to our reserves is attached as Exhibit 99.1 to this annual report on Form 10-K.  These calculations were prepared using standard geological and engineering methods generally accepted by the petroleum industry and in accordance with SEC financial accounting and reporting standards.
 
We do not have any employees with specific reservoir engineering qualifications in the company.  Our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer worked closely with PeTech Enterprises Inc. in connection with their preparation of our reserve estimates, including assessing the integrity, accuracy, and timeliness of the methods and assumptions used in this process.
 
PeTech Enterprises, Inc. (“PeTech”), who provided 2016 reserve estimates for our Oklahoma Properties, is a Texas based profitable, family owned oil and gas production and Investment Company that provides reservoir engineering, economics and valuation support to energy banks, energy companies and law firms as an expert witness.  PeTech has been in business since 1982.  Amiel David is the President of PeTech and the primary technical person in charge of the estimates of reserves and associated cash flow and economics on behalf of the company for the results presented in its reserves report to us.  He has a PhD in Petroleum Engineering from Stanford University.   He is a registered Professional Engineer in the state of Texas (PE #50970), granted in 1982, a member of the Society of Petroleum Engineers and a member of the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers.
 
Proved Nonproducing Reserves
 
As of December 31, 2016, our proved nonproducing reserves totaled 124,733 barrels of oil equivalents (BOE) compared to 40,170 as of December 31, 2015, an increase of 84,563 BOE.  These proved nonproducing reserves at December 31, 2016 were associated with our Hunton project Judy well. The change consists of a decrease of 40,170 BOE due to the sale of the Texas Marcelina properties and an increase of 124,733 BOE from the engineering analysis of the Judy well. These numbers are taken from the third party reserves study prepared by PeTech for 2016 and 2015 and CREST Engineering Services, Inc for 2015.
 
The net reserves change associated with these properties is a decrease of approximately 6,630 Bbls of oil and an increase of approximately 467,600 Mcf of gas calculated with a gas-oil equivalency factor of six.  
 
 We made investments and progress during 2016 to develop proved producing reserves in the Orogrande and Hazel Projects in the Permian Basin. As of December 31, 2016 there were no producing wells on these properties.
 
Our current drilling plans, subject to sufficient capital resources and the periodic evaluation of interim drilling results and other potential investment opportunities, include drilling additional wells in the Orogrande and Hazel AMI’s to continue to derisk the prospects and obtain initial production from the development efforts per our Farmout agreement with Founders in which we will be carried on all aspects of Orogrande drilling for the foreseeable future. In addition, we intend to continue to de-risk the Hazel AMI by continuing to drill evaluation wells. The next scheduled well in the Hazel Project is set for the end of June. It is intended to be a horizontal well testing the Wolfcamp formation in order to determine horizontal viability of the play.
  
Production, Price, and Production Cost History
 
During the year ended December 31, 2016, we produced and sold 8,488 barrels of oil net to our interest at an average sale price of $34.15 per bbl.  We produced and sold 36,513 MCF of gas net to our interest at an average sales price of $1.77 per MCF. Our average production cost including lease operating expenses and direct production taxes was $22.54 per BOE.  Our depreciation, depletion, and amortization expense was $43.67 per BOE.
 
During the year ended December 31, 2015, we produced and sold 27,981 barrels of oil net to our interest at an average sale price of $46.03 per bbl.  We produced and sold 113,229 MCF of gas net to our interest at an average sales price of $3.00 per MCF. Our average production cost including lease operating expenses and direct production taxes was $17.38 per bbl.  Our depreciation, depletion, and amortization expense was $19.87 per bbl.
 
Our production was from properties concentrated in central Oklahoma and in south Texas. Reserves at the beginning of 2016 from each of these areas comprised more than 15% of total reserves. The Oklahoma Cimarron properties were sold on May 1, 2016 and the Marcelina properties in south Texas were sold October 1, 2016. For 2016, approximately 4,381 BOE was produced at Marcelina Creek and approximately 9,151 BOE in Oklahoma, or 30% from Marcelina Creek and 63% from Oklahoma.
 
 
 
 
24
 
 
ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES - continued
 
Quarterly Revenue and Production by State for 2016 and 2015 are detailed as follows:
 
Property
 
Quarter
 
 
Oil Production {BBLS}
 
 
Gas Production {MCF}
 
 
 Oil Revenue
 
 
 Gas Revenue
 
 
 Total Revenue
 
Marcelina (TX)
    Q1 - 2016 
  3,000 
 -
 $92,546 
 $- 
 $92,546 
Oklahoma
    Q1 - 2016 
  2,026 
  21,148 
  54,289 
  38,624 
  92,913 
Kansas
    Q1 - 2016 
  312 
 -
  8,854 
  - 
  8,854 
Total Q1-2016
       
  5,338 
  21,148 
 $155,689 
 $38,624 
 $194,313 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
Marcelina (TX)
    Q2 - 2016 
  917 
     -
 $38,812 
 $- 
 $38,812 
Oklahoma
    Q2 - 2016 
  675 
  9,689 
  30,411 
  11,142 
  41,553 
Kansas
    Q2 - 2016 
  731 
 -
  28,834 
  - 
  28,834 
Total Q2-2016
       
  2,323 
  9,689 
 $98,057 
 $11,142 
 $109,199 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
Marcelina (TX)
    Q3 - 2016 
  464 
 -
 $20,190 
 $- 
 $20,190 
Oklahoma
    Q3 - 2016 
  180 
  2,830 
  7,925 
  6,170 
  14,095 
Kansas
    Q3 - 2016 
 -
 -
  - 
  - 
  - 
Total Q3-2016
       
  644 
  2,830 
 $28,115 
 $6,170 
 $34,285 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
Marcelina (TX)
    Q4 - 2016 
 -
 -
 $- 
 $- 
 $- 
Oklahoma
    Q4 - 2016 
  184 
  2,845 
  8,024 
  8,569 
  16,593 
Kansas
    Q4 - 2016 
 -
 -
  - 
  - 
  - 
Total Q4-2016
       
  184 
  2,845 
 $8,024 
 $8,569 
 $16,593 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
Year Ended 12/31/16
       
  8,488 
  36,513 
 $289,885 
 $64,505 
 $354,390 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
 
 
 
25
 
 
ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES - continued
 
Property
 
Quarter
 
 
Oil Production {BBLS}
 
 
Gas Production {MCF}
 
 
 Oil Revenue
 
 
 Gas Revenue
 
 
 Total Revenue
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Marcelina (TX)
    Q1 - 2015 
  2,425 
 -
 $98,787 
 $- 
 $98,787 
Oklahoma
    Q1 - 2015 
  5,931 
  37,226 
  277,574 
  117,521 
  395,095 
Kansas
    Q1 - 2015 
  979 
 -
  40,680 
  - 
  40,680 
Total Q1-2015
       
  9,335 
  37,226 
 $417,041 
 $117,521 
 $534,562 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
Marcelina (TX)
    Q2 - 2015 
  1,957 
 -
 $101,291 
 $- 
 $101,291 
Oklahoma
    Q2 - 2015 
  5,495 
  32,348 
  290,540 
  97,374 
  387,914 
Kansas
    Q2 - 2015 
  889 
 -
  19,060 
  - 
  19,060 
Total Q2-2015
       
  8,341 
  32,348 
 $410,891 
 $97,374 
 $508,265 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
Marcelina (TX)
    Q3 - 2015 
  2,177 
 -
 $86,845 
 $- 
 $86,845 
Oklahoma
    Q3 - 2015 
  4,550 
  31,275 
  212,156 
  87,791 
  299,947 
Kansas
    Q3 - 2015 
  370 
 -
  13,238 
  - 
  13,238 
Total Q3-2015
       
  7,097 
  31,275 
 $312,239 
 $87,791 
 $400,030 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
Marcelina (TX)
    Q4 - 2015 
  1,337 
 -
 $44,391 
 $- 
 $44,391 
Oklahoma
    Q4 - 2015 
  1,624 
  12,380 
  93,864 
  37,349 
  131,213 
Kansas
    Q4 - 2015 
  247 
 -
  9,573 
  - 
  9,573 
Total Q4-2015
       
  3,208 
  12,380 
 $147,828 
 $37,349 
 $185,177 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
Year Ended 12/31/15
       
  27,981 
  113,229 
 $1,287,999 
 $340,035 
 $1,628,034 
 
Drilling Activity and Productive Wells
 
Marcelina Creek Project - Texas
 
As of December 31, 2015, we had three productive wells in the Marcelina Creek Field (2.00 net wells) and one well in the Coulter Field (.40 net well).  Net wells consist of the sum of our fractional working interests in these wells.
 
During 2016 the Company conducted a reentry project on the Johnson #4. After an analysis of those results and the alternatives for pursuing continuing development of the Marcelina Project, a decision was made to offer the property for sale. The sale was consummated on October 1, 2016.
 
Central Oklahoma Projects
 
As of December 31, 2014, 10 wells were producing in the Cimarron, 11 wells in the Chisholm Trail, one in Prairie Grove, and one in the Viking.
 
During the year ended December 31, 2015, the Company continued to produce the wells in Oklahoma but did not significantly expand development due to capital constraints and industry conditions. The production and leases in the Chisholm Trail AMI were sold in November, 2015 and the Company was actively seeking buyers for the Cimarron AMI as well. A sale of the Cimarron AMI closed effective May 1, 2016.
 
Having sold the Chisholm Trail and Cimarron wells and acreage, the only remaining producing wells in Oklahoma are the Judy and the Loki wells as of December 31, 2016. The Company retains ownership of the Viking, Rosedale, and Thunderbird AMI’s at December 31, 2016. Reference the detailed Leasehold Interest table included in this report.
 
 
 
 
 
26
 
 
ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES - continued
 
Combined Well Status
 
The following table summarizes drilling activity and Well Status as of December 31, 2016:
 
 
 
Cumulative Well Status
 
 
Wells Acquired
 
 
Cumulative Well Status
 
Drilling Activity/Well Status
 
at 12/31/2016
 
 
 (Sold) 2016
 
 
at 12/31/2015
 
 
 
Gross
 
 
Net
 
 
Gross
 
 
Net
 
 
Gross
 
 
Net
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Development Wells:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Productive -Texas
  - 
  - 
  (3.00)
  (2.00)
  3.00 
  2.00 
Productive - Okla
  2.00 
  0.20 
  (7.00)
  (1.15)
  9.00 
  1.35 
Productive - Kansas
  - 
  - 
  (2.00)
  (1.00)
  2.00 
  1.00 
Dry
  - 
  - 
    
    
  - 
  - 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
Exploration Wells:
    
    
    
    
    
    
Productive
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
Dry
  1.00 
  - 
  1.00 
  0.33 
  - 
  - 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
Total Drilled Wells:
    
    
    
    
    
    
Productive -Texas
  - 
  - 
  (3.00)
  (2.00)
  3.00 
  2.00 
Productive - Okla
  2.00 
  0.20 
  (7.00)
  (1.15)
  9.00 
  1.35 
Productive - Kansas
  - 
  - 
  (2.00)
  (1.00)
  2.00 
  1.00 
Dry
  1.00 
  - 
  1.00 
  0.33 
  - 
  - 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
Acquired Wells:
    
    
    
    
    
    
Productive -Texas
  - 
  - 
  (1.00)
  (0.50)
  1.00 
  0.50 
Productive - Okla
  - 
  - 
  (4.00)
  (0.25)
  4.00 
  0.25 
Productive - Kansas
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
Total Wells:
    
    
    
    
    
    
Productive -Texas
  - 
  - 
  (4.00)
  (2.50)
  4.00 
  2.50 
Productive - Okla
  2.00 
  0.20 
  (11.00)
  (1.40)
  13.00 
  1.60 
Productive - Kansas
  - 
  - 
  (2.00)
  (1.00)
  2.00 
  1.00 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
Total
  2.00 
  0.20 
  (17.00)
  (4.90)
  19.00 
  5.09 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
Well Type:
    
    
    
    
    
    
Oil
  - 
  (0.00)
  (5.00)
  (3.00)
  5.00 
  3.00 
Gas
  - 
  - 
  (1.00)
  (0.50)
  1.00 
  0.50 
Combination -Oil and Gas
  2.00 
  0.20 
  (11.00)
  (1.40)
  13.00 
  1.60 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
Total
  2.00 
  0.20 
  (17.00)
  (4.90)
  19.00 
  5.09 
 
 
 
 
27
 
 
ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES - continued
 
Our acreage positions at December 31, 2016 are summarized as follows:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
TRCH Interest
 
 
TRCH Interest
 
 
 
Total Acres
 
 
Developed Acres
 
 
Undeveloped Acres
 
Leasehold Interests - 12/31/2016
 
Gross
 
 
Net
 
 
Gross
 
 
Net
 
 
Gross
 
 
Net
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Texas -
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Orogrande
  163,400 
  77,615 
  - 
  - 
  163,400 
  77,615 
Hazel Project
  12,000 
  4,001 
  - 
  - 
  12,000 
  4,001 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
Oklahoma -
    
    
    
    
    
    
Viking
  8,800 
  2,600 
  640 
  192 
  8,160 
  2,408 
Rosedale
  11,600 
  3,500 
  - 
  - 
  11,600 
  3,500 
Prairie Grove
  640 
  64 
  640 
  64 
  - 
  - 
Thunderbird
  4,300 
  1,100 
  - 
  - 
  4,300 
  1,100 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
Total
  200,740 
  88,880 
  1,280 
  256 
  199,460 
  88,624 
 
In January, 2017 the Company increased its working interest in the Hazel Project from 33.33% to 74%. Reference “Subsequent Events” in Note 11 to the financial statements included in this report.
 
Orogrande
 
On August 7, 2014, we entered into a Purchase Agreement with Hudspeth Oil Corporation (“Hudspeth”), McCabe Petroleum Corporation (“MPC”), and Greg McCabe. Mr. McCabe was the sole owner of both Hudspeth and MPC. Under the terms and conditions of the Purchase Agreement, at closing, we purchased 100% of the capital stock of Hudspeth which holds certain oil and gas assets, including a 100% working interest in 172,000 mostly contiguous acres in the Orogrande Basin in West Texas. This acreage is in the primary term under five-year leases that carry additional five-year extension provisions. As consideration, at closing we issued 868,750 shares of our common stock to Mr. McCabe and paid a total of $100,000 in geologic origination fees to third parties.  Additionally, Mr. McCabe has, at his option, a 10% working interest back-in after payout and a reversionary interest if drilling obligations are not met, all under the terms and conditions of a participation and development agreement. All drilling obligations through December 31, 2016 have been met. Closing of the transactions occurred on September 23, 2014.
 
Of the 168,000 acres, 40,154 were scheduled for renewal in December, 2014.  The Company renewed the leases for the 40,154 acres during second quarter, 2015. Prior to March 31, 2015, the Company had the obligation to begin drilling its first well in order to hold the acreage block. The Rich A-11 well was permitted and spudded and drilling began as required by March 31, 2015.
 
The Company finalized an agreement to sell a 5% working interest in the Orogrande acreage on June 30, 2015 with an effective date of April 1, 2015. Sale proceeds were $500,000 which were received in April, 2015. In addition, the Company issued 250,000 three year warrants with an exercise price of $.50 to the purchaser.
 
On September 23, 2015, our subsidiary, Hudspeth Oil Corporation (“HOC”), entered into a Farmout Agreement by and between HOC, Pandora Energy, LP (“Pandora”), Founders Oil & Gas, LLC (“Founders”), McCabe Petroleum Corporation and Greg McCabe (McCabe Petroleum Corporation and Greg McCabe are parties to the Farmout Agreement for limited purposes) for the entire Orogrande Project in Hudspeth County, Texas.  The Farmout Agreement provides for Founders to earn from HOC and Pandora (collectively, the “Farmor”) an undivided 50% of the leasehold interest in the Orogrande Project by Founder’s spending a minimum of $45 million on actual drilling operations on the Orogrande Project in the next two years.  Founders is to pay Farmor a total cost reimbursement of $5,000,000 in multiple installments as follows: (1) $1,000,000 at the signing of the Farmout Agreement, the balance of which was received on September 24, 2015; (2) within 90 days from the closing, Founders will frac and complete the Rich A-11 No. 1 Well; and (3) within five days of the spudding of each of the next eight wells drilled by Founders, Founders will pay to Farmor $500,000 resulting in the payment of the remaining amount; provided that, in the event that within 90 days after the fracing of the Rich Well, Founders notifies Farmor of its election not to drill any additional wells, Founders shall have no further obligation to make further payment.  
 
 
28
 
 
ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES - continued
 
Upon payment of the first $1,000,000, Farmor assigned to Founders an undivided 50% of the leasehold interest and a 37.5% net revenue interest in the leases subject to the terms of the Farmout Agreement (including obligations to re-assign to HOC and Pandora if the 50% interest in the entire Orogrande Project is not earned) and a proportionate share of the McCabe 10% BIAPO (back in after pay out) interest; provided, however, that for each well that Founders drills prior to earning the acreage, it will be assigned a 50% working interest in the wellbore and in the lease on which it sits.
 
Under a joint operating agreement (on A.A.P.L. Form 610 – 1989 Model Form Operating Agreement with COPAS 2005 Accounting Procedures) (“JOA”) also entered into on September 23, 2015, Founders is designated as operator of the leases.  Any variance to the operating plan will be determined by a Development Committee, which committee is made up of members from Founders and Farmor, or their designees, to discuss and recommend the location of the drill wells, data to be gathered and the form of same.  As contemplated under the Farmout Agreement, starting within 90 days of the completion of the fracing on the Rich A-11 Well, and at all times subject to the 90 day continuous drilling clause, Founders has the option, but not the obligation, to retain the assigned interest as follows: (1) if Founders spends a minimum of $45 million on actual drilling operations while maintaining compliance with the continuous drilling clause, subject to reasonable delays resulting from reasonable Force Majeure conditions, Founders will have fulfilled its farmout obligations and will be entitled to retain the assigned interests. If Founders does not meet such obligations, it will reassign to Farmor the assigned interest except it will be entitled to retain its interest in the leases covering all wells drilled by Founders and the sections in which such wells are located. Additionally, Founders will resign as operator of the JOA as to all lands reassigned; and (2) Farmor will be carried in all drilling operations during the first two years and/or $45 million in drilling operations, whichever comes last, subject to Founders’ right to recoup certain expenses on “Gap Wells.”  After three years and after Founders has earned its working interest, either party may elect to market the acreage as an entire block, including operatorship.  Should an acceptable bid arise, and both parties agree, the block will be sold 100% working interest to that third party bidder.  However, if only one party wants to accept the outside offer, the other party (the party who wishes not to sell) has the right to purchase the working interest from the selling party.
 
The Rich A-11 well that was drilled by Torchlight in second quarter, 2015 was evaluated and numerous scientific tests were performed to provide key data for the field development thesis. During the testing process a poor cement bond was identified preventing a cost effective production test for the primary pay zones. Repair to the well bore necessary for a subsequent frac procedure was determined to be economically unfeasible. With the Rich A-11 designed as a test well rather than commercial target, a decision to begin plans for drilling the next well(s) with larger casing that utilized for future commercial production was made.
 
Torchlight Energy and Founders have elected to move forward on planning the next phase of drilling in the Orogrande Project. The project operator planned to permit three new wells in 2016 starting with the University Founders B-19 #1 well. The new wells would be drilled vertically for test purposes and would have sufficient casing size to support lateral entry into any pay zone(s) encountered once the well is tested vertically. Torchlight and the project operator would then run a battery of tests on each well to gain information for future development of the field. The second test well, the University Founders B-19 #1, was spudded on April 24, 2016 and drilled in second quarter, 2016. The well successfully pumped down completion fluid in third quarter and indications of hydrocarbons were seen at the surface on this second Orogrande Project test well. Despite encountering a bedding plane in a small section of the wellbore which required the installation of a pump to dewater, fluids from the B-19 #1 test well have begun to show an oil cut. The oil samples appear to be to be very high gravity in the 45° to 47° API range. The well has shown casing pressure measured from 200 psi to 540 psi at various times during the testing phase. The presence of natural gas is also noted and samples have been taken showing a ~1050 BTU content.
 
The parties have agreed to amend the drilling schedule for the next well to be no later than April 30, 2017. Future plans are focused on drilling additional wells in the Orogrande per our Farmout agreement with Founders in which we will be carried on costs for all aspects of drilling for the foreseeable future.
 
Hazel Project in the Midland Basin in West Texas
 
Effective April 1, 2016, Torchlight Energy Inc. acquired from McCabe Petroleum Corporation, a 66.66% working interest in approximately 12,000 acres in the Midland Basin in exchange for 1,500,000 warrants to purchase our common stock with an exercise price of $1.00 for five years and a back-in after payout of a 25% working interest to the seller.
 
Initial development of the first well on the property, the Flying B Ranch #1, began July 10, 2016 and development continued through September 30, 2016. This well was is classified as a test well in the development pursuit of the Hazel Project.
 
In October, 2016, the holders of the Company's Series C Preferred shares (which were issued in July, 2016) elected to convert into a 33.33% Working Interest in the Company's Hazel Project, reducing Torchlight's ownership from 66.66% to a 33.33% Working Interest.
 
 
 
 
29
 
 
ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES - continued
 
On December 27, 2016, drilling activities commenced on its next Midland Basin, Hazel Project well, the Flying B Ranch #2. The well will be a vertical test similar to the Company's first Hazel Project well, the Flying B Ranch #1. We intend to continue to de-risk the Hazel AMI by continuing to drill evaluation wells. The next scheduled well in the Hazel Project is set for the end of June, 2017. It is intended to be a horizontal well testing the Wolfcamp formation in order to determine horizontal viability of the play.
 
In November, 2016, the Company announced that it had entered into a Letter of Intent to increase its ownership across all 12,000 gross acres in the Hazel Project resulting in 8,880 net acres in its Midland Basin Hazel Project. Upon closing of the transactions in January, 2017 contemplated by the Letter of Intent, Torchlight obtained the additional 40.66% Working Interest from an entity owned and controlled by its Chairman, Greg McCabe, increasing Torchlight's total ownership to 74%. Reference “Subsequent Events” in Note 11 to the financial statements included in this report.
 
Central Oklahoma Projects
 
The production and leases in the Chisholm Trail AMI were sold in November, 2015 and the sale of the Cimarron AMI s closed effective on May 1, 2016. The Company retains the acreage in the remaining three AMI’s (Viking, Rosedale, and Thunderbird), the Loki well in the Viking AMI, and the Judy well in the Prairie Grove AMI as of December 31, 2016. The Judy and the Loki wells are producing at December 31, 2016. Reserve value at December 31, 2016 is only from the Judy well.
 
ITEM 3.     LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
 
With respect to Oil and Gas properties previously owned by the Company in Central Oklahoma, Torchlight Energy Resources, Inc. and its subsidiary Torchlight Energy, Inc. (“Torchlight”) has pending in the 429th judicial district court in Collin County, Texas a lawsuit against Husky Ventures, Inc., Charles V. Long, Silverstar of Nevada, Inc., Gastar Exploration Inc., J. Russell Porter, Michael A. Gerlich, and Jerry R. Schuyler that was originally filed in May 2016 (previous defendants April Glidewell, Maximus Exploration, LLC, Atwood Acquisitions, LLC and John M. Selser, Sr have been non-suited without prejudice to re-filing the claims). In the lawsuit, Torchlight alleges, among other things, that the defendants acted improperly in connection with multiple transactions, and that the defendants misrepresented and omitted material information to Torchlight with respect to these transactions. The lawsuit seeks damages arising from 15 different causes of action, including without limitation, violations of the Texas Securities Act, fraud, negligent misrepresentation, breach of fiduciary duty, breach of contract, unjust enrichment and tortious interference. The lawsuit also seeks a complete accounting as to how Torchight’s investment funds were used, including all transfers between and among the defendants. Torchlight is seeking the full amount of our damages on $20,000,000 invested.
 
Defendant Gastar has asserted a breach of contract counterclaim against Torchlight related to a release contained in one of the agreements between Torchlight and Husky in which Gastar claims to be a third-party beneficiary.   Torchlight is claiming that this agreement should be rescinded, and in any event, that the release is unenforceable.
 
ITEM 4.     MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
 
Not Applicable.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30
 
 
PART II
 
ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
 
Our common stock is quoted on The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC under the symbol, “TRCH.”  Trading in our common stock in the over-the-counter market has historically been limited and occasionally sporadic and the quotations set forth below are not necessarily indicative of actual market conditions.  The high and low sales prices for the common stock for each quarter of the fiscal years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, according to NASDAQ, were as follows:
 
Quarter Ended
 
High
 
 
Low
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12/31/2016
 $1.48 
 $0.66 
9/30/2016
 $1.75 
 $0.55 
6/30/2016
 $0.94 
 $0.55 
3/31/2016
 $1.13 
 $0.42 
12/31/2015
 $1.87 
 $0.93 
9/30/2015
 $2.44 
 $0.48 
6/30/2015
 $2.40 
 $0.25 
3/31/2015
 $0.83 
 $0.22 
 
Record Holders
 
As of March 21, 2017, there were approximately 275 stockholders of record of our common stock, and we estimate that there were approximately 2,600 additional beneficial stockholders who hold their shares in “street name” through a brokerage firm or other institution. As of March 21, 2017, we have a total of 57,862,004 shares of common stock issued and outstanding.
 
The holders of the common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. Holders of the common stock have no preemptive rights and no right to convert their common stock into any other securities. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock.
 
Dividends
 
We have not declared any cash dividends on our common stock since inception and do not anticipate paying any dividends in the foreseeable future. The payment of dividends is within the discretion of the Board of Directors and will depend on our earnings, capital requirements, financial condition, and other relevant factors. There are no restrictions that currently limit our ability to pay dividends on our common stock other than those generally imposed by applicable state law. The Company issued preferred stock in 2016 and 2015 on which dividends were paid. No preferred stock is outstanding as of December 31, 2016.
 
Equity Compensation Plan Information
 
The following table sets forth all equity compensation plans as of December 31, 2016:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Number of
 
 
 
 
 
 
securities
 
 
 
 
 
 
remaining
 
 
 
 
 
 
available
 
 
 
 
 
 
for future
 
 
Number of
 
 
 
issuance
 
 
securities to
 
Weighted-
 
under
 
 
be issued
 
average
 
equity
 
 
upon
 
exercise
 
compensation
 
 
exercise of
 
price of
 
plans
 
 
outstanding
 
outstanding
 
(excluding
 
 
options,
 
options,
 
securities
 
 
warrants
 
warrants
 
reflected in
Plan Category
 
and rights
 
and rights
 
column (a))
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Equity compensation plans approved
 
 
 
 
 
 
      by security holders
 
6,706,905
 
 $ 1.56
 
1,290,258
 
 
 
31
 
 
ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES - continued
 
Sales of Unregistered Securities
 
Other than the sales below, all equity securities that we have sold during the period covered by this report that were not registered under the Securities Act have previously been included in a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or in a Current Report on Form 8-K.
 
In November 2016, we issued 165,000 shares of common stock in connection with Company owned lease interests.
 
In November 2016, we issued 221,000 four-year warrants to purchase common stock at an exercise price of $0.70 per share in connection with Company owned lease interests.
 
In December 2016, Eunis Shockey (a former director) exercised warrants at an exercise price of $0,50 per share, purchasing 271,901 shares of common stock.
 
In December 2016, we issued a total of 70,000 shares of common stock to a consultant as compensation for services.
 
In November 2016, we issued 120,000 five-year warrants to a consultant as compensation for services at an exercise price of $1.03.
 
All of the above sales of securities described in this Item 2 were sold under the exemption from registration provided by Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933 and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.  The issuances of securities did not involve a “public offering” based upon the following factors: (i) the issuances of securities were isolated private transactions; (ii) a limited number of securities were issued to a limited number of purchasers; (iii) there were no public solicitations; (iv) the investment intent of the purchasers; and (v) the restriction on transferability of the securities issued.
 
ITEM 6.  SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
 
Not Applicable.
 
ITEM 7.  MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Information set forth and discussed in this Management’s Discussion and Analysis and Results of Operations is derived from our historical financial statements and the related notes thereto which are included in this Form 10-K. The following information and discussion should be read in conjunction with such financial statements and notes. Additionally, this Management’s Discussion and Analysis and Plan of Operations contain certain statements that are not strictly historical and are “forward-looking” statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and involve a high degree of risk and uncertainty. Actual results may differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements due to other risks and uncertainties that exist in our operations, development efforts, and business environment, and due to other risks and uncertainties relating to our ability to obtain additional capital in the future to fund our planned expansion, the demand for oil and natural gas, and other general economic factors.
 
All forward-looking statements included herein are based on information available to us as of the date hereof, and we assume no obligation to update any such forward-looking statements.
 
Summary of Key Results
 
Overview
 
We are engaged in the acquisition, exploration, exploitation, and/or development of oil and natural gas properties in the United States.
 
During the quarter ended June 30, 2016 the Board of Directors initiated a review of Company operations in view of the divestiture of its Oklahoma properties, beginning with the sale of the Chisholm Trail properties in fourth quarter, 2015 and the sale of the Cimarron properties in second quarter, 2016. During this same time development had continued on the Orogrande Project in West Texas and in April, 2016, the Company acquired the Hazel Project in the Midland Basin also in West Texas. These West Texas properties demonstrate significant potential and future production capabilities based upon the analysis of scientific data being gathered in the day by day development activity. Therefore, the Board has determined to focus its efforts and capital on these two projects to maximize shareholder value for the long run.
 
 
 
 
32
 
 
ITEM 7.    MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS - continued
 
With this new emphasis, remaining projects in other locations were offered for sale. The result was the closing on August 10, 2016 of the assignment of the Company’s Ring Properties in Kansas to our joint venture partner. Further, the Marcelina properties in South Texas have been sold effective October 1, 2016. The Company’s remaining assets in Oklahoma consisting of three AMI’s (the Viking, Rosedale, and the Thunderbird) and four wells (two are producing) are held pending the outcome of the lawsuit filed by Torchlight against the operator, Husky Ventures, in May, 2016.
 
The strategy in divesting of projects other than the Orogrande and the Hazel Projects is to refocus on the greatest potential future value for the Company while systematically eliminating debt as noncore assets are sold and operations are streamlined.
 
The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our audited financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015 included herewith.  This discussion should not be construed to imply that the results discussed herein will necessarily continue into the future, or that any conclusion reached herein will necessarily be indicative of actual operating results in the future.  Such discussion represents only the best present assessment by our management.
 
Historical Results for the Years Ended December 31, 2016 and 2015
 
For the year ended December 31, 2016, we had a net loss of $7,684,346 compared to a net loss of $43,252,878 for the year ended December 31, 2015.
 
Revenues and Cost of Revenues
 
For the year ended December 31, 2016, we had production revenue of $354,390 compared to $1,628,034 of production revenue for the year ended December 31, 2015. Refer to the table of production and revenue for 2016 included below.  Our cost of revenue, consisting of lease operating expenses and production taxes, was $328,438, and $814,078 for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively. Production and Revenue are detailed as follows:
 
Property
 
Quarter
 
 
Oil Production {BBLS}
 
 
Gas Production {MCF}
 
 
 Oil Revenue
 
 
 Gas Revenue
 
 
 Total Revenue
 
Marcelina (TX)
    Q1 - 2016 
  3,000 
 -
 $92,546