UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
 
(Mark One)
 
Annual report under Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018.
 
Transition report under Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (No fee required)
 
For the transition period from _______ to _______.
 
Commission file number 000-53473
 
Torchlight Energy Resources, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant in its charter)
 
Nevada
74-3237581
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
Organization)
 
 
5700 W. Plano Parkway, Suite 3600
Plano, Texas 75093
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(214) 432-8002
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act:
 
Common Stock ($0.001 Par Value)
(Title of Each Class)
 
The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
(Name of each exchange on which registered)
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act:
 
None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ No ⌧
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ⌧
 
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Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ⌧ No ☐
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ⌧ No ☐
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ☐
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
 
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
☐ (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No ⌧
 
The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant on June 30, 2018, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, based on the closing price on that date of $1.36 on the Nasdaq Stock Market, was approximately $73,042,665.
 
At March 15, 2019, there were 71,695,865 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding (the only class of common stock).
 
 
 
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
 
None.
 
 
 
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NOTE ABOUT FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements include, among other things, statements regarding plans, objectives, goals, strategies, future events or performance and underlying assumptions and other statements, which are other than statements of historical facts. Forward-looking statements may appear throughout this report, including without limitation, the following sections: Item 1 “Business,” Item 1A “Risk Factors,” and Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Forward-looking statements generally can be identified by words such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “predicts,” “projects,” “will be,” “will continue,” “will likely result,” and similar expressions. These forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and assumptions that are subject to risks and uncertainties, which could cause our actual results to differ materially from those reflected in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and in particular, the risks discussed under the caption “Risk Factors” in Item 1A and those discussed in other documents we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Important factors that in our view could cause material adverse effects on our financial condition and results of operations include, but are not limited to, risks associated with the company’s ability to obtain additional capital in the future to fund planned expansion, the demand for oil and natural gas, general economic factors, competition in the industry and other factors that may cause actual results to be materially different from those described herein as anticipated, believed, estimated or expected. We undertake no obligation to revise or publicly release the results of any revision to any forward-looking statements, except as required by law. Given these risks and uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements.
 
As used herein, the “Company,” “Torchlight,” “we,” “our,” and similar terms include Torchlight Energy Resources, Inc. and its subsidiaries, unless the context indicates otherwise.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3
 
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
PART I
 
 
 
 
Page
Item 1.
Business
 
5
Item 1A.
Risk Factors
 
11
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
 
21
Item 2.
Properties
 
22
 
 
 
 
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
 
29
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
 
29
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
 
 
Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
30
Item 6.
Selected Financial Data
 
30
Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 
30
Item 7A.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
 
35
Item 8.
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
 
36
Item 9.
Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
 
60
Item 9A.
Controls and Procedures
 
60
Item 9B.
Other Information
 
61
 
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
 
 
Item 10.
Directors, Executive Officer, and Corporate Governance
 
62
Item 11.
Executive Compensation
 
64
Item 12.
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
 
66
Item 13.
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
 
68
Item 14.
Principal Accountant Fees and Services
 
70
Item 15.
Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
 
70
 
 
 
 
 
Signatures
 
73
4
 
 
 PART I
 
 ITEM 1. BUSINESS
 
Corporate History and Background
 
Torchlight Energy Resources, Inc. was incorporated in October, 2007 under the laws of the State of Nevada as Pole Perfect Studios, Inc. (“PPS”).
 
On November 23, 2010, we entered into and closed a Share Exchange Agreement (the “Exchange Agreement”) between the major shareholders of PPS and the shareholders of Torchlight Energy, Inc. (“TEI”). As a result of the transactions effected by the Exchange Agreement, at closing TEI became our wholly-owned subsidiary, and the business of TEI became our sole business. TEI is an energy company, incorporated under the laws of the State of Nevada in June, 2010. We are engaged in the acquisition, exploration, exploitation, and/or development of oil and natural gas properties in the United States. We operate our business through TEI and four other wholly-owned subsidiaries, Torchlight Energy Operating, LLC, a Texas limited liability company, Hudspeth Oil Corporation, a Texas corporation, Torchlight Hazel LLC, a Texas limited liability company, and Warwink Properties LLC, a Texas limited liability company.
 
Business Overview
 
We are an energy company engaged in the acquisition, exploration, exploitation and/or development of oil and natural gas properties in the United States. We are primarily focused on the acquisition of early stage projects, the development and delineation of these projects, and then the monetization of those assets once these activities are completed.
 
Since 2010, our primary focus has been the development of interests in oil and gas projects we hold in the Permian Basin in West Texas, including the Orogrande Project in Hudspeth County, Texas, the Hazel Project in the Midland Basin and the recently acquired project in Winkler County, Texas in the Delaware Basin. Within these three projects, we drilled seven gross wells (horizontal and vertical) in 2018 in the Wolfcamp A, B, C Upper and Lower Second Bone Spring, Third Bone Spring, and the Pennsylvanian in the Orogrande. We also hold interests in certain other oil and gas projects that we are in the process of divesting, including the Hunton wells project as part of a partnership with Husky Ventures, Inc., or Husky, in Central Oklahoma.
  
Key Business Attributes
 
Experienced People. We build on the expertise and experiences of our management team, including John Brda and Roger Wurtele. We will also receive guidance from outside advisors as well as our Board of Directors and will align with high quality exploration and technical partners.
 
Project Focus. We are focusing primarily on exploitation projects by pursuing resources in areas where commercial production has already been established but where opportunity for additional and nearby development is indicated. We may pursue high risk exploration prospects which may appear less favored than low risk exploration. We will, however, consider these high risk-high reward exploration prospects in connection with exploitation opportunities in a project that would reduce the overall project economic risk. We will consider such high risk-high reward prospects on their individual merits.
 
Lower Cost Structure. We will attempt to maintain the lowest possible cost structure, enabling the greatest margins and providing opportunities for investment that would not be feasible for higher cost competitors.
 
Limit Capital Risks. Limited capital exposure is planned initially to add value to a project and determine its economic viability. Projects are staged and have options before additional capital is invested. We will limit our exposure in any one project by participating at reduced working interest levels, thereby being able to diversify with limited capital. Management has experience in successfully managing risks of projects, finance, and value.
 
Project Focus
 
Generally, we will focus on exploitation projects (primarily for oil, although gas projects will be considered if the economics are favorable). Projects are first identified, evaluated, and followed by the engagement of third party operating or financial partners. Subject to overall availability of capital, our interest in large capital projects will be limited. Each opportunity will be investigated on a standalone basis for both technical and financial merit.
 
We will be actively seeking quality new investment opportunities to sustain our growth, and we believe we will have access to many new projects. The sources of these opportunities will vary but all will be evaluated with the same criteria of technical and economic factors. It is expected that projects will come from the many small producers who find themselves under-funded or over-extended and therefore vulnerable to price volatility. The financial ability to respond quickly to opportunities will ensure a continuous stream of projects and will enable us to negotiate from a stronger position to enhance value.
 
5
 
 
ITEM 1. BUSINESS - continued
 
With emphasis on acquisitions and development strategies, the types of projects in which we will be involved vary from increased production due to simple re-engineering of existing wellbores to step-out drilling, drilling horizontally, and extensions of known fields. Recompletion of existing wellbores in new zones, development of deeper zones and detailing of structure, and stratigraphic traps with three-dimensional seismic and utilization of new technologies will all be part of our anticipated program. Our preferred type of projects are in-fills to existing production with nearly immediate cash flow and/or adjacent or on trend to existing production. We will prefer projects with moderate to low risk, unrecognized upside potential, and geographic diversity.
 
Business Processes
 
We believe there are three principal business processes that we must follow to enable our operations to be profitable. Each major business process offers the opportunity for a distinct partner or alliance as we grow. These processes are:
 
Investment Evaluation and Review;
 
Operations and Field Activities; and
 
Administrative and Finance Management.
 
Investment Evaluation and Review. This process is the key ingredient to our success. Recognition of quality investment opportunities is the fuel that drives our engine. Broadly, this process includes the following activities: prospect acquisition, regional and local geological and geophysical evaluations, data processing, economic analysis, lease acquisition and negotiations, permitting, and field supervision. We expect these evaluation processes to be managed by our management team. Expert or specific technical support will be outsourced as needed. Only if a project is taken to development, and only then, will additional staff be hired. New personnel will have very specific responsibilities. We anticipate attractive investment opportunities to be presented from outside companies and from the large informal community of geoscientists and engineers. Building a network of advisors is key to the pipeline of high quality opportunities.
 
Operations and Field Activities. This process begins following management approval of an investment. Well site supervision, construction, drilling, logging, product marketing, and transportation are examples of some activities. We will prefer to be the operator, but when operations are not possible, we will farm-out sufficient interests to third parties that will be responsible for these operating activities. We provide personnel to monitor these activities and associated costs.
 
Administrative and Finance Management. This process coordinates our initial structuring and capitalization, general operations and accounting, reporting, audit, banking and cash management, regulatory agencies reporting and interaction, timely and accurate payment of royalties, taxes, leases rentals, vendor accounts and performance management that includes budgeting and maintenance of financial controls, and interface with legal counsel and tax and other financial and business advisors.
 
Current Projects
 
As of December 31, 2018, we had interests in four oil and gas projects: the Orogrande Project in Hudspeth County, Texas, the Hazel Project in Sterling, Tom Green, and Irion Counties, Texas, the Winkler Project in Winkler County, Texas and the Hunton wells in partnership with Husky Ventures in central Oklahoma.
 
Orogrande Project, West Texas
 
On August 7, 2014, we entered into a Purchase Agreement with Hudspeth Oil Corporation (“Hudspeth”), McCabe Petroleum Corporation (“MPC”), and Gregory McCabe, our Chairman. Mr. McCabe was the sole owner of both Hudspeth and MPC. Under the terms and conditions of the Purchase Agreement, at closing, we purchased 100% of the capital stock of Hudspeth which holds certain oil and gas assets, including a 100% working interest in approximately 172,000 mostly contiguous acres in the Orogrande Basin in West Texas. As of December 31, 2017, leases covering approximately 133,000 acres remain in effect. This acreage is in the primary term under five-year leases that carry additional five-year extension provisions. As consideration, at closing we issued 868,750 restricted shares of our common stock to Mr. McCabe and paid a total of $100,000 in geologic origination fees to third parties. Additionally, Mr. McCabe has, at his option, a 10% working interest back-in after payout and a reversionary interest if drilling obligations are not met, all under the terms and conditions of a participation and development agreement among Hudspeth, MPC and Mr. McCabe. All drilling obligations through December 31, 2018 have been met.
 
On September 23, 2015, Hudspeth entered into a Farmout Agreement with Pandora Energy, LP (“Pandora”), Founders Oil & Gas, LLC (“Founders”), and for the limited purposes set forth therein, MPC and Mr. McCabe, for the entire Orogrande Project in Hudspeth County, Texas. The Farmout Agreement provided that Hudspeth and Pandora (collectively referred to as “Farmor”) would assign to Founders an undivided 50% of the leasehold interest and a 37.5% net revenue interest in the oil and gas leases and mineral interests in the Orogrande Project, which interests, except for any interests retained by Founders, would be reassigned to Farmor by Founders if Founders did not spend a minimum of $45.0 million on actual drilling operations on the Orogrande Project by September 23, 2017. Under a joint operating agreement also entered into on September 23, 2015, Founders was designated as operator of the leases.
 
 
6
 
 
ITEM 1. BUSINESS - continued
 
On March 22, 2017, Founders, Founders Oil & Gas Operating, LLC, Founders’ operating partner, Hudspeth and Pandora signed a Drilling and Development Unit Agreement (the “DDU Agreement”), with the Commissioner of the General Land Office, on behalf of the State of Texas, and as approved by the Board for Lease of University Lands, or University Lands, on the Orogrande Project. The DDU Agreement has an effective date of January 1, 2017 and required a payment from Founders, Hudspeth and Pandora, collectively, of $335,323 as the initial consideration fee. The initial consideration fee was paid by Founders in April 2017 and was to be deducted from the required spud fee payable to us at commencement of the next well drilled.
 
The DDU Agreement allows for all 192 existing leases covering approximately 133,000 net acres leased from University Lands to be combined into one drilling and development unit for development purposes. The term of the DDU Agreement expires on December 31, 2023, and the time to drill on the drilling and development unit continues through December 2023. The DDU Agreement also grants the right to extend the DDU Agreement through December 2028 if compliance with the DDU Agreement is met and the extension fee associated with the additional time is paid. Our drilling obligations began with one well to be spudded and drilled on or before September 1, 2017, and increased to two wells in year 2018, three wells in year 2019, four wells in year 2020 and five wells per year in years 2021, 2022 and 2023. The drilling obligations are minimum yearly requirements and may be exceeded if acceleration is desired. The DDU Agreement replaces all prior agreements, and will govern future drilling obligations on the drilling and development unit if the DDU Agreement is extended. The Company drilled three wells during the fourth quarter of 2018.
 
There are two vertical tests wells in the Orogrande Project, the Orogrande Rich A-11 test well and the University Founders B-19 #1 test well. The Orogrande Rich A-11 test well was spudded on March 31, 2015, drilled in the second quarter of 2015 and was evaluated and numerous scientific tests were performed to provide key data for the field development thesis. We believe that future utility of this well may be conversion to a salt water disposal well in the course of further development of the Orogrande acreage. The University Founders B-19 #1 was spudded on April 24, 2016 and drilled in the second quarter of 2016. The well successfully pumped down completion fluid in the third quarter of 2016 and indications of hydrocarbons were seen at the surface on this second Orogrande Project test well. We believe that future utility of this well may be conversion to a salt water disposal well in the course of further development of the Orogrande acreage.
 
During the fourth quarter of 2017, we took back operational control from Founders on the Orogrande Project. We were joined by Wolfbone Investments, LLC, (“Wolfbone”), a company owned by Mr. McCabe. We, along with Hudspeth, Wolfbone and, for the limited purposes set forth therein, Pandora, entered into an Assignment of Farmout Agreement with Founders, (the “Assignment of Farmout Agreement”), pursuant to which we and Wolfbone will share the remaining commitments under the Farmout Agreement. All original provisions of our carried interest were to remain in place including reimbursement to us on each wellbore. Founders was to remain a 9.5% working interest owner in the Orogrande Project for the $9.5 million it had spent as of the date of the Assignment of Farmout Agreement, and such interests were to be carried until $40.5 million is spent by Wolfbone and us, with each contributing 50% of such capital spend, under the existing agreement. Our working interest in the Orogrande Project thereby increased by 20.25% to a total of 67.75% and Wolfbone then owned 20.25%.
 
Founders was to operate a newly drilled horizontal well called the University Founders #A25 (at 5,540’ depth in a 1,000’ lateral) with supervision from us and our partners. The University Founders #A25 was spudded on November 28, 2017. During the month of April 2018, we, MPC and Mr. McCabe were to assume full operational control including managing drilling plans and timing for all future wells drilled in the project.
 
On July 25, 2018, we and Hudspeth entered into a Settlement & Purchase Agreement (the “Settlement Agreement”) with Founders (and Founders Oil & Gas Operating, LLC), Wolfbone and MPC, which agreement provides for Hudspeth and Wolfbone to each immediately pay $625,000 and for Hudspeth or the Company and Wolfbone or MPC to each pay another $625,000 on July 20, 2019, as consideration for Founders assigning all of its working interest in the oil and gas leases of the Orogrande Project to Hudspeth and Wolfbone equally. The assignments to Hudspeth and Wolfbone were made in July when the first payments were made. The payments to Founders in 2019 are not securitized. Future well capital spending obligations will require the same 50% contribution from Hudspeth and 50% from Wolfbone until such time as the $40.5 million to be spent on the project (as per our Assignment of Farmout Agreement with Founders) is completed. The Company estimates that there is still approximately $23 million remaining to be spent on the project until such time as the capital expenditures revert back to the percentages of the working interest owners.
 
After the assignment by Founders (for which Hudspeth’s total consideration is $1,250,000), Hudspeth’s working interest increased to 72.5%. Additionally, the Settlement Agreement provides that the Founders parties will assign to the Company, Hudspeth, Wolfbone and MPC their claims against certain vendors for damages, if any, against such vendors for negligent services or defective equipment. Further, the Settlement Agreement has a mutual release and waivers among the parties.
 
Rich Masterson, our consulting geologist, is credited with originating the Orogrande Project in Hudspeth County in the Orogrande Basin. With Mr. Masterson’s assistance, we have identified target payzone depths between 4,100’ and 6,100’ with primary pay, described as the WolfPenn formation, located at depths of 5,300 to 5,900’. Based on our geologic analysis to date, the Wolfpenn formation is prospective for oil and high British thermal unit (Btu) gas, with a 70/30 mix expected, respectively.
 
Recently, the Company drilled three additional test wells in the Orogrande in order to stay in compliance with University Lands D&D Unit Agreement, as well as, to test for potential shallow pay zones and deeper pay zones that may be present on structural plays. At the time of this writing, the results have not been published.
 
7
 
 
ITEM 1. BUSINESS - continued
 
Hazel Project in the Midland Basin in West Texas
 
Effective April 4, 2016, TEI acquired from MPC a 66.66% working interest in approximately 12,000 acres in the Midland Basin in exchange for 1,500,000 warrants to purchase shares of our common stock with an exercise price of $1.00 for five years and a back-in after payout of a 25% working interest to MPC.
 
Initial development of the first well on the property, the Flying B Ranch #1, began July 9, 2016 and development continued through September 30, 2016. This well is classified as a test well in the development pursuit of the Hazel Project. We believe that this wellbore will be utilized as a salt water disposal well in support of future development.
 
In October 2016, the holders of all of our then-outstanding shares of Series C Preferred Stock (which were issued in July 2016) elected to convert into a total 33.33% working interest in our Hazel Project, reducing our ownership from 66.66% to a 33.33% working interest. As of December 31, 2018, no shares of our Series C Preferred Stock were outstanding.
 
On December 27, 2016, drilling activities commenced on the second Hazel Project well, the Flying B Ranch #2. The well is a vertical test similar to our first Hazel Project well, the Flying B Ranch #1. Recompletion in an alternative geological formation for this well was performed during the three months ended September 30, 2017; however, we believe that the results were uneconomic for continuing production. We believe that this wellbore will be utilized as a salt water disposal well in support of future development.
 
We commenced planning to drill the Flying B Ranch #3 horizontal well in the Hazel Project in June 2017 in compliance with the continuous drilling obligation. The well was spudded on June 10, 2017. The well was completed and began production in late September 2017.
 
Acquisition of Additional Interests in Hazel Project
 
On January 30, 2017, we and our then wholly-owned subsidiary, Torchlight Acquisition Corporation, a Texas corporation (“TAC”), entered into and closed an Agreement and Plan of Reorganization and a Plan of Merger with Line Drive Energy, LLC, a Texas limited liability company (“Line Drive”), and Mr. McCabe, under which agreements TAC merged with and into Line Drive and the separate existence of TAC ceased, with Line Drive being the surviving entity and becoming our wholly-owned subsidiary. Line Drive, which was wholly-owned by Mr. McCabe, owned certain assets and securities, including approximately 40.66% of 12,000 gross acres, 9,600 net acres, in the Hazel Project and 521,739 warrants to purchase shares of our common stock (which warrants had been assigned by Mr. McCabe to Line Drive). Upon the closing of the merger, all of the issued and outstanding shares of common stock of TAC automatically converted into a membership interest in Line Drive, constituting all of the issued and outstanding membership interests in Line Drive immediately following the closing of the merger, the membership interest in Line Drive held by Mr. McCabe and outstanding immediately prior to the closing of the merger ceased to exist, and we issued Mr. McCabe 3,301,739 restricted shares of our common stock as consideration therefor. Immediately after closing, the 521,739 warrants held by Line Drive were cancelled, which warrants had an exercise price of $1.40 per share and an expiration date of June 9, 2020. A Certificate of Merger for the merger transaction was filed with the Secretary of State of Texas on January 31, 2017. Subsequent to the closing the name of Line Drive Energy, LLC was changed to Torchlight Hazel, LLC. We are required to drill one well every six months to hold the entire 12,000 acre block for eighteen months, and thereafter two wells every six months starting June 2018. As of December 31, 2018 drilling commitments have been met.
 
Also on January 30, 2017, TEI entered into and closed a Purchase and Sale Agreement with Wolfbone. Under the agreement, TEI acquired certain of Wolfbone’s Hazel Project assets, including its interest in the Flying B Ranch #1 well and the 40 acre unit surrounding the well, for consideration of $415,000, and additionally, Wolfbone caused to be cancelled a total of 2,780,000 warrants to purchase shares of our common stock, including 1,500,000 warrants held by MPC, and 1,280,000 warrants held by Green Hill Minerals, an entity owned by Mr. McCabe’s son, which warrant cancellations were effected through certain Warrant Cancellation Agreements. The 1,500,000 warrants held by MPC that were cancelled had an exercise price of $1.00 per share and an expiration date of April 4, 2021. The warrants held by Green Hill Minerals that were cancelled included 100,000 warrants with an exercise price of $1.73 and an expiration date of September 30, 2018 and 1,180,000 warrants with an exercise price of $0.70 and an expiration date of February 15, 2020.
 
Since Mr. McCabe held the controlling interest in both Line Drive and Wolfbone, the transactions were combined for accounting purposes. The working interest in the Hazel Project was the only asset held by Line Drive. The warrant cancellation was treated in the aggregate as an exercise of the warrants with the transfer of the working interests as the consideration. We recorded the transactions as an increase in its investment in the Hazel Project working interests of $3,644,431, which is equal to the exercise price of the warrants plus the cash paid to Wolfbone.
 
Upon the closing of the transactions, our working interest in the Hazel Project increased by 40.66% to a total ownership of 74%.
 
Effective June 1, 2017, we acquired an additional 6% working interest from unrelated working interest owners in exchange for 268,656 shares of common stock valued at $373,430, increasing our working interest in the Hazel project to 80%, and an overall net revenue interest of 74-75%.
 
Mr. Masterson is credited with originating the Hazel Project in the Midland Basin. With Mr. Masterson’s assistance, we are targeting prospects in the Midland Basin that have 150 to 130 feet of thickness, are likely to require six to eight laterals per bench, have the potential for twelve to sixteen horizontal wells per section, and 200 long lateral locations, assuming only two benches.
 
 
8
 
 
ITEM 1. BUSINESS - continued
 
In April 2018, we announced that we have commenced a process that could result in the monetization of the Hazel Project. We believe the development activity at the Hazel Project, coupled with nearby activities of other oil and gas operators, suggests that this project has achieved a level of value worth monetizing. We anticipate that the liquidity that would be provided from selling the Hazel Project could be redeployed into the Orogrande Project. While this process is underway, we will take all necessary steps to maintain the leasehold as required. In May 2018, the working interest partners in the Hazel Project drilled a shallow well to test a zone at 2500’. As of this filing, we continue to maintain the leases in good standing and continue to market the acreage in an effort to focus on the Orogrande Project.
 
Winkler Project, Winkler County, Texas
 
On December 1, 2017, the Agreement and Plan of Reorganization that we and our then wholly-owned subsidiary, Torchlight Wolfbone Properties, Inc., a Texas corporation (“TWP”), entered into with MPC and Warwink Properties, LLC (Warwink Properties) on November 14, 2017 closed. Under the agreement, TWP merged with and into Warwink Properties and the separate existence of TWP ceased, with Warwink Properties being the surviving entity and becoming our wholly-owned subsidiary. Warwink Properties was wholly owned by MPC. Warwink Properties owns certain assets, including a 10.71875% working interest in approximately 640 acres in Winkler County, Texas. Upon the closing of the merger, all of the issued and outstanding shares of common stock of TWP converted into a membership interest in Warwink Properties, constituting all of the issued and outstanding membership interests in Warwink Properties immediately following the closing of the merger, the membership interest in Warwink Properties held by MPC and outstanding immediately prior to the closing of the merger ceased to exist, and we issued MPC 2,500,000 restricted shares of our common stock as consideration. Also on December 1, 2017, MPC closed its transaction with MECO IV, LLC (” MECO”), for the purchase and sale of certain assets as contemplated by the Purchase and Sale Agreement dated November 9, 2017 among MPC, MECO and additional parties thereto (the “MECO PSA”), to which we are not a party. Under the MECO PSA, Warwink Properties received a carry from MECO (through the tanks) of up to $1,179,076 in the next well drilled on the Winkler County leases. A Certificate of Merger for the merger transaction was filed with the Secretary of State of Texas on December 5, 2017.
 
Also on December 1, 2017, the transactions contemplated by the Purchase Agreement that TEI entered into with MPC closed. Under the Purchase Agreement, which was entered into on November 14, 2017, TEI acquired beneficial ownership of certain of MPC’s assets, including acreage and wellbores located in Ward County, Texas (the “Ward County Assets”). As consideration under the Purchase Agreement, at closing TEI issued to MPC an unsecured promissory note in the principal amount of $3,250,000, payable in monthly installments of interest only beginning on January 1, 2018, at the rate of 5% per annum, with the entire principal amount together with all accrued interest due and payable on January 1, 2021. In connection with TEI’s acquisition of beneficial ownership in the Ward County Assets, MPC sold those same assets, on behalf of TEI, to MECO at closing of the MECO PSA, and accordingly, TEI received $3,250,000 in cash for its beneficial interest in the Ward County Assets. Additionally, at closing of the MECO PSA, MPC paid TEI a performance fee of $2,781,500 in cash as compensation for TEI’s marketing and selling the Winkler County assets of MPC and the Ward County Assets as a package to MECO.
 
Addition to the Winkler Project
 
As of May 7, 2018 our Winkler project in the Delaware Basin had begun the drilling phase of the first Winkler Project well, the UL 21 War-Wink 47 #2H. Our operating partner, MECO had begun the pilot hole on the project. The plan is to evaluate the various potential zones for a lateral leg to be drilled once logging is completed. We expect the most likely target to be the Wolfcamp A interval. The well is on 320 newly acquired acres offsetting the original leasehold we entered into in December, 2017. The additional acreage was leased by our operating partner under the Area of Mutual Interest Agreement (AMI) and we exercised its right to participate for its 12.5% in the additional 1,080 gross acres at a cash cost of $447,847 in July, 2018. Our carried interest in the first well, as outlined in the agreement, was originally planned to be on the first acreage acquired. That carried interest is being applied to this new well and will allow MECO to drill and produce potential revenues sooner than originally planned. The primary leasehold is a 320-acre block directly west of the current position and will allow for 5,000-foot lateral wells to be drilled. The well was completed and began production in October, 2018.
 
Two additional wells are planned for development by MECO in 2019.
 
In December, 2018, the Company began to take measures to market its working interest participation in the Warwink Project in an effort to focus on the Orogrande.
 
Hunton Play, Central Oklahoma
 
As of December 31, 2018, we were producing from one well in the Viking Area of Mutual Interest and one well in Prairie Grove. All other Oklahoma property interests including the lease interests previously held in the Viking, Rosedale, and Thunderbird AMI’s were abandoned pursuant to the Settlement and Mutual Release Agreement executed on June 27, 2018.
 
 
9
 
 
ITEM 1. BUSINESS - continued
 
Industry and Business Environment
 
We are experiencing a time of fluctuating oil prices caused by lower demand, higher US Supply, and OPEC’s policies on production. Unfortunately, this is the cyclical nature of the oil and gas industry. We experience highs and lows that seem to come in cycles. Fortunately, advances in technology drive the US market and we feel this will drive the development costs down on our exploration and drilling programs.
 
Competition
 
The oil and natural gas industry is intensely competitive, and we will compete with numerous other companies engaged in the exploration and production of oil and gas. Some of these companies have substantially greater resources than we have. Not only do they explore for and produce oil and natural gas, but also many carry on midstream and refining operations and market petroleum and other products on a regional, national, or worldwide basis. The operations of other companies may be able to pay more for exploratory prospects and productive oil and natural gas properties. They may also have more resources to define, evaluate, bid for, and purchase a greater number of properties and prospects than our financial or human resources permit.
 
Our larger or integrated competitors may have the resources to be better able to absorb the burden of current and future federal, state, and local laws and regulations more easily than we can, which would adversely affect our competitive position. Our ability to locate reserves and acquire interests in properties in the future will be dependent upon our ability and resources to evaluate and select suitable properties and consummate transactions in this highly competitive environment. In addition, we may be at a disadvantage in producing oil and natural gas properties and bidding for exploratory prospects because we have fewer financial and human resources than other companies in our industry. Should a larger and better financed company decide to directly compete with us, and be successful in its efforts, our business could be adversely affected.
 
Marketing and Customers
 
The market for oil and natural gas that we will produce depends on factors beyond our control, including the extent of domestic production and imports of oil and natural gas, the proximity and capacity of natural gas pipelines and other transportation facilities, demand for oil and natural gas, the marketing of competitive fuels, and the effects of state and federal regulation. The oil and gas industry also competes with other industries in supplying the energy and fuel requirements of industrial, commercial, and individual consumers.
 
Our oil production is expected to be sold at prices tied to the spot oil markets. Our natural gas production is expected to be sold under short-term contracts and priced based on first of the month index prices or on daily spot market prices. We will rely on our operating partners to market and sell our production.
 
Governmental Regulation and Environmental Matters
 
Our operations are subject to various rules, regulations, and limitations impacting the oil and natural gas exploration and production industry as a whole.
 
Regulation of Oil and Natural Gas Production
 
Our oil and natural gas exploration, production, and related operations, when developed, will be subject to extensive rules and regulations promulgated by federal, state, tribal, and local authorities and agencies. Certain states may also have statutes or regulations addressing conservation matters, including provisions for the unitization or pooling of oil and natural gas properties, the establishment of maximum rates of production from wells, and the regulation of spacing, plugging, and abandonment of such wells. Failure to comply with any such rules and regulations can result in substantial penalties. The regulatory burden on the oil and gas industry will most likely increase our cost of doing business and may affect our profitability. Although we believe we are currently in substantial compliance with all applicable laws and regulations, because such rules and regulations are frequently amended or reinterpreted, we are unable to predict the future cost or impact of complying with such laws. Significant expenditures may be required to comply with governmental laws and regulations and may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
 
Environmental Matters
 
Our operations and properties are and will be subject to extensive and changing federal, state, and local laws and regulations relating to environmental protection, including the generation, storage, handling, emission, transportation, and discharge of materials into the environment, and relating to safety and health. In the future, environmental legislation and regulation may trend toward stricter standards. These laws and regulations may:
 
require the acquisition of a permit or other authorization before construction or drilling commences and for certain other activities;
limit or prohibit construction, drilling, and other activities on certain lands lying within wilderness and other protected areas;
impose substantial liabilities for pollution resulting from operations; or
restrict certain areas from fracking and other stimulation techniques.
 
The permits required for our operations may be subject to revocation, modification, and renewal by issuing authorities. Governmental authorities have the power to enforce their regulations, and violations are subject to fines or injunctions, or both. In the opinion of management, we are and will be in substantial compliance with current applicable environmental laws and regulations, and have no material commitments for capital expenditures to comply with existing environmental requirements. Nevertheless, changes in existing environmental laws and regulations or in interpretations thereof could have a significant impact on our company, as well as the oil and natural gas industry in general.
 
10
 
 
ITEM 1. BUSINESS - continued
 
The Comprehensive Environmental, Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (“CERCLA”) and comparable state statutes impose strict, joint, and several liability on owners and operators of sites and on persons who disposed of or arranged for the disposal of “hazardous substances” found at such sites. It is not uncommon for the neighboring landowners and other third parties to file claims for personal injury and property damage allegedly caused by the hazardous substances released into the environment. The Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (“RCRA”) and comparable state statutes govern the disposal of “solid waste” and “hazardous waste” and authorize the imposition of substantial fines and penalties for noncompliance. Although CERCLA currently excludes petroleum from its definition of “hazardous substance,” state laws affecting our operations may impose clean-up liability relating to petroleum and petroleum related products. In addition, although RCRA classifies certain oil field wastes as “non-hazardous,” such exploration and production wastes could be reclassified as hazardous wastes thereby making such wastes subject to more stringent handling and disposal requirements.
 
The Endangered Species Act (“ESA”) seeks to ensure that activities do not jeopardize endangered or threatened animal, fish, and plant species, nor destroy or modify the critical habitat of such species. Under ESA, exploration and production operations, as well as actions by federal agencies, may not significantly impair or jeopardize the species or its habitat. ESA provides for criminal penalties for willful violations of the Act. Other statutes that provide protection to animal and plant species and that may apply to our operations include, but are not necessarily limited to, the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, the Fishery Conservation and Management Act, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and the National Historic Preservation Act. Although we believe that our operations will be in substantial compliance with such statutes, any change in these statutes or any reclassification of a species as endangered could subject our company to significant expenses to modify our operations or could force our company to discontinue certain operations altogether.
 
Hydraulic fracturing is regulated by state and federal oil and gas regulatory authorities, including specifically the requirement to disclose certain information related to hydraulic fracturing operations. Operators must follow applicable legal requirements for groundwater protection in our operations that are subject to supervision by state and federal regulators (including the Bureau of Land Management on federal acreage). Furthermore, well construction practices require the installation of multiple layers of protective steel casing surrounded by cement that are specifically designed and installed to protect freshwater aquifers by preventing the migration of fracturing fluids into aquifers. Regulatory proposals in some states and local communities have been initiated to require or make more stringent the permitting and compliance requirements for hydraulic fracturing operations. Federal and state agencies have continued to assess the impacts of hydraulic fracturing, which could spur further action toward federal and/or state legislation and regulation of hydraulic fracturing activities. In addition, in light of concerns about seismic activity being triggered by the injection of produced waters into underground wells and hydraulic fracturing, certain regulators are also considering additional requirements related to seismic safety for hydraulic fracturing activities. Further restrictions on hydraulic fracturing could make it prohibitive to conduct our operations, and also reduce the amount of oil and natural gas that we or our operators are ultimately able to produce in commercial quantities from our properties.
 
Climate Change
 
Significant studies and research have been devoted to climate change and global warming, and climate change has developed into a major political issue in the United States and globally. Certain research suggests that greenhouse gas emissions contribute to climate change and pose a threat to the environment. Recent scientific research and political debate has focused in part on carbon dioxide and methane incidental to oil and natural gas exploration and production. Many states and the federal government have enacted legislation directed at controlling greenhouse gas emissions, and future legislation and regulation could impose additional restrictions or requirements in connection with our drilling and production activities and favor use of alternative energy sources, which could affect operating costs and demand for oil products. As such, our business could be materially adversely affected by domestic and international legislation targeted at controlling climate change.
 
Employees
 
We currently have two full time employees and no part time employees. We anticipate, as needed, we will add additional employees, and we will continue using independent contractors, consultants, attorneys, and accountants as necessary to complement services rendered by our employees. We presently have independent technical professionals under consulting agreements who are available to us on an as needed basis.
 
Research and Development
 
We did not spend any funds on research and development activities during the years ended December 31, 2018 or 2017.
 
 ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
 
An investment in us involves a high degree of risk and is suitable only for prospective investors with substantial financial means who have no need for liquidity and can afford the entire loss of their investment in us. Prospective investors should carefully consider the following risk factors, in addition to the other information contained in this report.
 
Risks Related to our Business and Industry
 
We have a limited operating history relative to larger companies in our industry, and may not be successful in developing profitable business operations.
 
 
11
 
 
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS - continued
 
We have a limited operating history relative to larger companies in our industry. Our business operations must be considered in light of the risks, expenses and difficulties frequently encountered in establishing a business in the oil and natural gas industries. As of the date of this report, we have generated limited revenues and have limited assets. We have an insufficient history at this time on which to base an assumption that our business operations will prove to be successful in the long-term. Our future operating results will depend on many factors, including:
 
our ability to raise adequate working capital;
 
the success of our development and exploration;
 
the demand for natural gas and oil;
 
the level of our competition;
 
our ability to attract and maintain key management and employees; and
 
our ability to efficiently explore, develop, produce or acquire sufficient quantities of marketable natural gas or oil in a highly competitive and speculative environment while maintaining quality and controlling costs.
 
To achieve profitable operations in the future, we must, alone or with others, successfully manage the factors stated above, as well as continue to develop ways to enhance our production efforts. Despite our best efforts, we may not be successful in our exploration or development efforts, or obtain required regulatory approvals. There is a possibility that some, or all, of the wells in which we obtain interests may never produce oil or natural gas.
 
We have limited capital and will need to raise additional capital in the future.
 
We do not currently have sufficient capital to fund both our continuing operations and our planned growth. We will require additional capital to continue to grow our business via acquisitions and to further expand our exploration and development programs. We may be unable to obtain additional capital when required. Future acquisitions and future exploration, development, production and marketing activities, as well as our administrative requirements (such as salaries, insurance expenses and general overhead expenses, as well as legal compliance costs and accounting expenses) will require a substantial amount of additional capital and cash flow.
 
We may pursue sources of additional capital through various financing transactions or arrangements, including joint venturing of projects, debt financing, equity financing, or other means. We may not be successful in identifying suitable financing transactions in the time period required or at all, and we may not obtain the capital we require by other means. If we do not succeed in raising additional capital, our resources may not be sufficient to fund our planned operations.
 
Our ability to obtain financing, if and when necessary, may be impaired by such factors as the capital markets (both generally and in the oil and gas industry in particular), our limited operating history, the location of our oil and natural gas properties and prices of oil and natural gas on the commodities markets (which will impact the amount of asset-based financing available to us, if any) and the departure of key employees. Further, if oil or natural gas prices on the commodities markets decline, our future revenues, if any, will likely decrease and such decreased revenues may increase our requirements for capital. If the amount of capital we are able to raise from financing activities, together with our revenues from operations, is not sufficient to satisfy our capital needs (even to the extent that we reduce our operations), we may be required to cease our operations, divest our assets at unattractive prices or obtain financing on unattractive terms.
 
Any additional capital raised through the sale of equity may dilute the ownership percentage of our stockholders. Raising any such capital could also result in a decrease in the fair market value of our equity securities because our assets would be owned by a larger pool of outstanding equity. The terms of securities we issue in future capital transactions may be more favorable to our new investors, and may include preferences, superior voting rights and the issuance of other derivative securities, and issuances of incentive awards under equity employee incentive plans, which may have a further dilutive effect.
 
We may incur substantial costs in pursuing future capital financing, including investment banking fees, legal fees, accounting fees, securities law compliance fees, printing and distribution expenses and other costs. We may also be required to recognize non-cash expenses in connection with certain securities we may issue, which may adversely impact our financial condition.
 
Our auditor indicated that certain factors raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.
 
The financial statements included with this report are presented under the assumption that we will continue as a going concern, which contemplates the realization of assets and the satisfaction of liabilities in the normal course of business over a reasonable length of time. We had a net loss of approximately $5.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 and an accumulated deficit in aggregate of approximately $89.3 million at year end. We are not generating sufficient operating cash flows to support continuing operations, and expect to incur further losses in the development of our business.
 
 
12
 
 
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS - continued
 
In our financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2018, our auditor indicated that certain factors raised substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. These factors included our accumulated deficit, as well as the fact that we were not generating sufficient cash flows to meet our regular working capital requirements. Our ability to continue as a going concern is dependent upon our ability to generate future profitable operations and/or to obtain the necessary financing to meet our obligations and repay our liabilities arising from normal business operations when they come due. Management’s plan to address our ability to continue as a going concern includes: (1) obtaining debt or equity funding from private placement or institutional sources; (2) obtaining loans from financial institutions, where possible, or (3) participating in joint venture transactions with third parties. Although management believes that it will be able to obtain the necessary funding to allow us to remain a going concern through the methods discussed above, there can be no assurances that such methods will prove successful. The accompanying financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.
 
The negative covenants contained in our outstanding unsecured promissory notes may limit our activities and make it difficult to run our business.
 
On April 10, 2017, we sold to investors in a private transaction two 12% unsecured promissory notes with a total of $8,000,000 in principal amount, or the 2017 Notes. In addition, on February 6, 2018, we sold to an investor in a private transaction a 12% unsecured promissory note with a principal amount of $4,500,000, or the 2018 Note, containing substantially the same terms as the 2017 Notes. We refer to the 2017 Notes and the 2018 Note collectively as, the Notes. Interest only is due and payable on the Notes each month at the rate of 12% per annum, with a balloon payment of the outstanding principal due and payable at maturity on April 10, 2020. The holders of the Notes will also receive annual payments of common stock at the rate of 2.5% of principal amountoutstanding, based on a volume-weighted average price. We sold the 2017 Notes at an original issue discount of 94.25% and accordingly, we received total proceeds of $7,540,000 from the investors. We sold the 2018 Note at an original issue discount of 96.27% and accordingly, we received total proceeds of $4,332,150 from the investor. The Notes allow for early redemption, provided that if we redeem before April 10, 2018 for the 2017 Notes and February 6, 2019 for the 2018 Note, we must pay the holder all unpaid interest and common stock payments on the portion of the Note redeemed that would have been earned through April 10, 2018 and February 6, 2019, respectively.
 
The Notes contain negative covenants which may make it difficult for us to run our business. Under the Notes, we may not, directly or indirectly, consolidate with or merge into another person or sell, lease, convey or transfer all or substantially all of our assets (computed on a consolidated basis), unless either (i) in the case of a merger or consolidation, we are the surviving entity or (ii) the resulting, surviving or transferee entity expressly assumes by supplemental agreement all of the obligations of us in connection with the Notes.
 
In addition, the Notes also contain certain covenants under which we have agreed that, except for financing arrangements with established commercial banking or financial institutions and other debts and liabilities incurred in the normal course of business, we will not issue any other notes or debt offerings which have a maturity date prior to the payment in full of the respective Note, unless consented to by the holder. Further, our subsidiaries cannot sell or otherwise dispose of any shares of capital stock or assets unless the transaction is for fair value and approved by our disinterested directors or is pursuant to any contractual obligation entered into by us in the ordinary course of business in connection with drilling, exploration and development of our oil and gas properties.
 
The Notes also restrict us and our subsidiaries from (i) issuing any preferred stock or any other comparable equity interest which are mandatorily redeemable at a date prior to the maturity date of the Notes, without the consent or approval of the holder, (ii) distributing any cash or other assets to any holders of our common stock prior to payment in full of the Notes, without the consent of the holder, (iii) entering into any transaction with an affiliate, subject to limited exceptions, and (iv) issuing any other notes or debt offerings which have a maturity date prior to the payment in full of the Notes, unless consented to by the holder.
 
Failure to comply with the negative covenants could accelerate the repayment of any debt outstanding under the Notes. Additionally, as a result of these negative covenants, we may be at a disadvantage compared to our competitors that have greater operating and financing flexibility than we do.
 
Lastly, we may have difficulty securing additional sources of capital through debt financing. If we do not succeed in raising additional capital, our resources may not be sufficient to fund our planned operations.
 
As a non-operator, our development of successful operations relies extensively on third-parties who, if not successful, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operation.
 
We expect to primarily participate in wells operated by third-parties. As a result, we will not control the timing of the development, exploitation, production and exploration activities relating to leasehold interests we acquire. We do, however, have certain rights as granted in our joint operating agreements that allow us a certain degree of freedom such as, but not limited to, the ability to propose the drilling of wells. If our drilling partners are not successful in such activities relating to our leasehold interests, or are unable or unwilling to perform, our financial condition and results of operation could have an adverse material effect.
 
Further, financial risks are inherent in any operation where the cost of drilling, equipping, completing and operating wells is shared by more than one person. We could be held liable for the joint activity obligations of the operator or other working interest owners such as nonpayment of costs and liabilities arising from the actions of the working interest owners. In the event the operator or other working interest owners do not pay their share of such costs, we would likely have to pay those costs. In such situations, if we were unable to pay those costs, there could be a material adverse effect to our financial position.
  
 
13
 
 
We are mainly concentrated in one geographic area, which increases our exposure to many of the risks enumerated herein.
 
Operating in a concentrated area increases the potential impact that many of the risks stated herein may have upon our ability to perform. For example, we have greater exposure to regulatory actions impacting Texas, natural disasters in the geographic area, competition for equipment, services and materials available in the area and access to infrastructure and markets. In addition, the effect of fluctuations on supply and demand may become more pronounced within specific geographic oil and gas producing areas such as the Permian Basin, which may cause these conditions to occur with greater frequency or magnify the effect of these conditions. Due to the concentrated nature of our portfolio of properties, a number of our properties could experience any of the same conditions at the same time, resulting in a relatively greater impact on our results of operations than they might have on other companies that have a more diversified portfolio of properties. Such delays or interruptions could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
 
We may be unable to monetize the Hazel and Warwink Projects at an attractive price, if at all, and the disposition of such assets may involve risks and uncertainties.
 
We have commenced a process that could result in the monetization of the Hazel and Warwink Projects. Such dispositions may result in proceeds to us in an amount less than we expect or less than our assessment of the value of the assets. We do not know if we will be able to successfully complete such disposition on favorable terms or at all. In addition, the sale of theseassets involves risks and uncertainties, including disruption to other parts of our business, potential loss of customers or revenue, exposure to unanticipated liabilities or result in ongoing obligations and liabilities to us following any such divestiture.
 
For example, in connection with a disposition, we may enter into transition services agreements or other strategic relationships, which may result in additional expense. In addition, in connection with a disposition, we may be required to make representations about the business and financial affairs of the business or assets. We may also be required to indemnify the purchasers to the extent that our representations turn out to be inaccurate or with respect to certain potential liabilities. These indemnification obligations may require us to pay money to the purchasers as satisfaction of their indemnity claims. It may also take us longer than expected to fully realize the anticipated benefits of this transaction, and those benefits may ultimately be smaller than anticipated or may not be realized at all, which could adversely affect our business and operating results. Any of the foregoing could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
 
Because of the speculative nature of oil and gas exploration, there is risk that we will not find commercially exploitable oil and gas and that our business will fail.
 
The search for commercial quantities of oil and natural gas as a business is extremely risky. We cannot provide investors with any assurance that any properties in which we obtain a mineral interest will contain commercially exploitable quantities of oil and/or gas. The exploration expenditures to be made by us may not result in the discovery of commercial quantities of oil and/or gas. Problems such as unusual or unexpected formations or pressures, premature declines of reservoirs, invasion of water into producing formations and other conditions involved in oil and gas exploration often result in unsuccessful exploration efforts. If we are unable to find commercially exploitable quantities of oil and gas, and/or we are unable to commercially extract such quantities, we may be forced to abandon or curtail our business plan, and as a result, any investment in us may become worthless.
 
Strategic relationships upon which we may rely are subject to change, which may diminish our ability to conduct our operations.
 
Our ability to successfully acquire oil and gas interests, to build our reserves, to participate in drilling opportunities and to identify and enter into commercial arrangements with customers will depend on developing and maintaining close working relationships with industry participants and our ability to select and evaluate suitable properties and to consummate transactions in a highly competitive environment. These realities are subject to change and our inability to maintain close working relationships with industry participants or continue to acquire suitable property may impair our ability to execute our business plan.
 
To continue to develop our business, we will endeavor to use the business relationships of our management to enter into strategic relationships, which may take the form of joint ventures with other private parties and contractual arrangements with other oil and gas companies, including those that supply equipment and other resources that we will use in our business. We may not be able to establish these strategic relationships, or if established, we may not be able to maintain them. In addition, the dynamics of our relationships with strategic partners may require us to incur expenses or undertake activities we would not otherwise be inclined to in order to fulfill our obligations to these partners or maintain our relationships. If our strategic relationships are not established or maintained, our business prospects may be limited, which could diminish our ability to conduct our operations.
 
The price of oil and natural gas has historically been volatile. If it were to decrease substantially, our projections, budgets, and revenues would be adversely affected, potentially forcing us to make changes in our operations.
 
Our future financial condition, results of operations and the carrying value of any oil and natural gas interests we acquire will depend primarily upon the prices paid for oil and natural gas production. Oil and natural gas prices historically have been volatile and likely will continue to be volatile in the future, especially given current world geopolitical conditions. Our cash flows from operations are highly dependent on the prices that we receive for oil and natural gas. This price volatility also affects the amount of our cash flows available for capital expenditures and our ability to borrow money or raise additional capital. The prices for oil and natural gas are subject to a variety of additional factors that are beyond our control. These factors include:
 
the level of consumer demand for oil and natural gas;
 
14
 
 
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS - continued
 
the domestic and foreign supply of oil and natural gas;
 
the ability of the members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (“OPEC”) to agree to and maintain oil price and production controls;
 
the price of foreign oil and natural gas;
 
domestic governmental regulations and taxes;
 
the price and availability of alternative fuel sources;
 
weather conditions;
 
market uncertainty due to political conditions in oil and natural gas producing regions, including the Middle East; and
 
worldwide economic conditions.
 
These factors as well as the volatility of the energy markets generally make it extremely difficult to predict future oil and natural gas price movements with any certainty. Declines in oil and natural gas prices affect our revenues, and could reduce the amount of oil and natural gas that we can produce economically. Accordingly, such declines could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, oil and natural gas reserves and the carrying values of our oil and natural gas properties. If the oil and natural gas industry experiences significant price declines, we may be unable to make planned expenditures, among other things. If this were to happen, we may be forced to abandon or curtail our business operations, which would cause the value of an investment in us to decline or become worthless.
 
If oil or natural gas prices remain depressed or drilling efforts are unsuccessful, we may be required to record additional write downs of our oil and natural gas properties.
 
If oil or natural gas prices remain depressed or drilling efforts are unsuccessful, we could be required to write down the carrying value of certain of our oil and natural gas properties. Write downs may occur when oil and natural gas prices are low, or if we have downward adjustments to our estimated proved reserves, increases in our estimates of operating or development costs, deterioration in drilling results or mechanical problems with wells where the cost to re drill or repair is not supported by the expected economics.
 
Under the full cost method of accounting, capitalized oil and gas property costs less accumulated depletion and net of deferred income taxes may not exceed an amount equal to the present value, discounted at 10%, of estimated future net revenues from proved oil and gas reserves plus the cost of unproved properties not subject to amortization (without regard to estimates of fair value), or estimated fair value, if lower, of unproved properties that are subject to amortization. Should capitalized costs exceed this ceiling, an impairment would be recognized.
 
The Company recognized an impairment charge of $139,891 in 2018 and -0- in 2017.
 
During the year ended December 31, 2017 the Company performed assessments of evaluated and unevaluated costs in the cost pool to conform the cumulative value of the Full Cost Pool to the combined amount of Reserve Value of evaluated, producing properties (as determined by independent analysis at December 31, 2017), plus the lesser of cumulative historical cost or estimated realizable value of unevaluated leases and projects expected to commence production in future operating periods. The Company identified impairment of $2,300,626 in 2017 related to its unevaluated properties. Although we had no recognized impairment expense in 2017, the Company has adjusted the separation of evaluated versus unevaluated costs within its full cost pool to recognize the value impairment related to the expiration of unevaluated leases in 2017 in the amount of $2,300,626. The impact of this change will be to increase the basis for calculation of future period’s depletion, depreciation and amortization to include $2,300,626 of cost which will effectively recognize the impairment on the Statement of Operations over future periods. The $2,300,626 has also become an evaluated cost for purposes of future period’s Ceiling Tests and which may further recognize the impairment expense recognized in future periods.
 
Because of the inherent dangers involved in oil and gas operations, there is a risk that we may incur liability or damages as we conduct our business operations, which could force us to expend a substantial amount of money in connection with litigation and/or a settlement.
 
 
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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS - continued
 
The oil and natural gas business involves a variety of operating hazards and risks such as well blowouts, pipe failures, casing collapse, explosions, uncontrollable flows of oil, natural gas or well fluids, fires, spills, pollution, releases of toxic gas and other environmental hazards and risks. These hazards and risks could result in substantial losses to us from, among other things, injury or loss of life, severe damage to or destruction of property, natural resources and equipment, pollution or other environmental damage, cleanup responsibilities, regulatory investigation and penalties and suspension of operations. In addition, we may be liable for environmental damages caused by previous owners of property purchased and leased by us. In recent years, there has also been increased scrutiny on the environmental risk associated with hydraulic fracturing, such as underground migration and surface spillage or mishandling of fracturing fluids including chemical additives. This technology has evolved and continues to evolve and become more aggressive. We believe that new techniques can increase estimated ultimate recovery per well to over 1.0 million barrels of oil equivalent, and have increased initial production two or three fold. We believe that recent designs have seen improvement in, among other things, proppant per foot, barrels of water per stage, fracturing stages, and clusters per fracturing stage. As a result, substantial liabilities to third parties or governmental entities may be incurred, the payment of which could reduce or eliminate the funds available for exploration, development or acquisitions or result in the loss of our properties and/or force us to expend substantial monies in connection with litigation or settlements. In addition, we will need to quickly adapt to the evolving technology, which could take time and divert our attention to other business matters. We currently have no insurance to cover such losses and liabilities, and even if insurance is obtained, it may not be adequate to cover any losses orliabilities. We cannot predict the availability of insurance or the availability of insurance at premium levels that justify our purchase. The occurrence of a significant event not fully insured or indemnified against could materially and adversely affectour financial condition and operations. We may elect to self-insure if management believes that the cost of insurance, although available, is excessive relative to the risks presented. In addition, pollution and environmental risks generally are not fully insurable. The occurrence of an event not fully covered by insurance could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. 
 
The market for oil and gas is intensely competitive, and competition pressures could force us to abandon or curtail our business plan.
 
The market for oil and gas exploration services is highly competitive, and we only expect competition to intensify in the future. Numerous well-established companies are focusing significant resources on exploration and are currently competing with us for oil and gas opportunities. Other oil and gas companies may seek to acquire oil and gas leases and properties that we have targeted. Additionally, other companies engaged in our line of business may compete with us from time to time in obtaining capital from investors. Competitors include larger companies which, in particular, may have access to greater resources, may be more successful in the recruitment and retention of qualified employees and may conduct their own refining and petroleum marketing operations, which may give them a competitive advantage. Actual or potential competitors may be strengthened through the acquisition of additional assets and interests. Additionally, there are numerous companies focusing their resources on creating fuels and/or materials which serve the same purpose as oil and gas, but are manufactured from renewable resources.
 
As a result, we may not be able to compete successfully and competitive pressures may adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition. If we are not able to successfully compete in the marketplace, we could be forced to curtail or even abandon our current business plan, which could cause any investment in us to become worthless.
 
We may not be able to successfully manage our expected growth, which could lead to our inability to implement our business plan.
 
Our expected growth may place a significant strain on our managerial, operational and financial resources, especially considering that we currently only have a small number of executive officers, employees and advisors. Further, as we enter into additional contracts, we will be required to manage multiple relationships with various consultants, businesses and other third parties. These requirements will be exacerbated in the event of our further growth or in the event that the number of our drilling and/or extraction operations increases. Our systems, procedures and/or controls may not be adequate to support our operations or that our management will be able to achieve the rapid execution necessary to successfully implement our business plan. If we are unable to manage our growth effectively, our business, results of operations and financial condition will be adversely affected, which could lead to us being forced to abandon or curtail our business plan and operations.
 
The due diligence undertaken by us in connection with all of our acquisitions may not have revealed all relevant considerations or liabilities related to those assets, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
 
The due diligence undertaken by us in connection with the acquisition of our properties may not have revealed all relevant facts that may be necessary to evaluate such acquisitions. The information provided to us in connection with our diligence may have been incomplete or inaccurate. As part of the diligence process, we have also made subjective judgments regarding the results of operations and prospects of the assets. If the due diligence investigations have failed to correctly identify material issues and liabilities that may be present, such as title defects or environmental problems, we may incur substantial impairment charges or other losses in the future. In addition, we may be subject to significant, previously undisclosed liabilities that were not identified during the due diligence processes and which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
 
Our operations are heavily dependent on current environmental regulation, changes in which we cannot predict.
 
Oil and natural gas activities that we will engage in, including production, processing, handling and disposal of hazardous materials, such as hydrocarbons and naturally occurring radioactive materials (if any), are subject to stringent regulation. We could incur significant costs, including cleanup costs resulting from a release of hazardous material, third-party claims for property damage and personal injuries fines and sanctions, as a result of any violations or liabilities under environmental or other laws. Changes in or more stringent enforcement of environmental laws could force us to expend additional operating costs and capital expenditures to stay in compliance.
 
 
16
 
 
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS - continued
 
Various federal, state and local laws regulating the discharge of materials into the environment, or otherwise relating to the protection of the environment, directly impact oil and gas exploration, development and production operations, and consequently may impact our operations and costs. These regulations include, among others, (i) regulationsby the Environmental Protection Agency and various state agencies regarding approved methods of disposal for certain hazardous and non-hazardous wastes; (ii) the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and analogous state laws which regulate the removal or remediation of previously disposed wastes (including wastes disposed of or released by prior owners or operators), property contamination (including groundwater contamination),and remedial plugging operations to prevent future contamination; (iii) the Clean Air Act and comparable state and local requirements which may result in the gradual imposition of certain pollution control requirements with respect to air emissions from our operations; (iv) the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 which contains numerous requirements relating to the prevention of and response to oil spills into waters of the United States; (v) the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act which is the principal federal statute governing the treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous wastes; and (vi) state regulations and statutes governing the handling, treatment, storage and disposal of naturally occurring radioactive material.
 
We believe that we will be in substantial compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations. To date, we have not expended any amounts to comply with such regulations, and we do not currently anticipate that future compliance will have a materially adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows. However, if we are deemed to not be in compliance with applicable environmental laws, we could be forced to expend substantial amounts to be in compliance, which would have a materially adverse effect on our financial condition.
 
Government regulatory initiatives relating to hydraulic fracturing could result in increased costs and additional operating restrictions or delays.
 
Vast quantities of natural gas, natural gas liquids and oil deposits exist in deep shale and other unconventional formations. It is customary in our industry to recover these resources through the use of hydraulic fracturing, combined with horizontal drilling. Hydraulic fracturing is the process of creating or expanding cracks, or fractures, in deep underground formations using water, sand and other additives pumped under high pressure into the formation. As with the rest of the industry, our third-party operating partners use hydraulic fracturing as a means to increase the productivity of most of the wells they drill and complete. These formations are generally geologically separated and isolated from fresh ground water supplies by thousands of feet of impermeable rock layers.
 
We believe our third-party operating partners follow applicable legal requirements for groundwater protection in their operations that are subject to supervision by state and federal regulators. Furthermore, we believe our third-party operating partners’ well construction practices are specifically designed to protect freshwater aquifers by preventing the migration of fracturing fluids into aquifers.
 
Hydraulic fracturing is typically regulated by state oil and gas commissions. Some states have adopted, and other states are considering adopting, regulations that could impose more stringent permitting, public disclosure, and/or well construction requirements on hydraulic fracturing operations.
 
In addition to state laws, some local municipalities have adopted or are considering adopting land use restrictions, such as city ordinances, that may restrict or prohibit the performance of well drilling in general and/or hydraulic fracturing in particular. There are also certain governmental reviews either underway or being proposed that focus on deep shale and other formation completion and production practices, including hydraulic fracturing. Depending on the outcome of these studies, federal and state legislatures and agencies may seek to further regulate such activities. Certain environmental and other groups have also suggested that additional federal, state and local laws and regulations may be needed to more closely regulate the hydraulic fracturing process.
 
Further, the EPA has asserted federal regulatory authority over hydraulic fracturing involving “diesel fuels” under the Solid Waste Disposal Act’s Underground Injection Control Program. The EPA is also engaged in a study of the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing activities on drinking water resources in the states where the EPA is the permitting authority. These actions, in conjunction with other analyses by federal and state agencies to assess the impacts of hydraulic fracturing could spur further action toward federal and/or state legislation and regulation of hydraulic fracturing activities.
 
We cannot predict whether additional federal, state or local laws or regulations applicable to hydraulic fracturing will be enacted in the future and, if so, what actions any such laws or regulations would require or prohibit. Restrictions on hydraulic fracturing could make it prohibitive for our third-party operating partners to conduct operations, and also reduce the amount of oil, natural gas liquids and natural gas that we are ultimately able to produce in commercial quantities from our properties. If additional levels of regulation or permitting requirements were imposed on hydraulic fracturing operations, our business and operations could be subject to delays, increased operating and compliance costs and process prohibitions.
 
Our estimates of the volume of reserves could have flaws, or such reserves could turn out not to be commercially extractable. As a result, our future revenues and projections could be incorrect.
 
 
17
 
 
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS - continued
 
Estimates of reserves and of future net revenues prepared by different petroleum engineers may vary substantially depending, in part, on the assumptions made and may be subject to adjustment either up or down in the future. Our actual amounts of production, revenue, taxes, development expenditures, operating expenses, and quantities of recoverable oil and gas reserves may vary substantially from the estimates. Oiland gas reserve estimates are necessarily inexact and involve matters of subjective engineering judgment. In addition, any estimates of our future net revenues and the present value thereof are based on assumptions derived in part from historical price and cost information, which may not reflect current and future values, and/or other assumptions made by us that only represent our best estimates. If these estimates of quantities, prices and costs prove inaccurate, we may be unsuccessful in expanding our oil and gas reserves base with our acquisitions. Additionally, if declines in and instability of oil and gas prices occur, then write downs in the capitalized costs associated with any oil and gas assets we obtain may be required. Because of the nature of the estimates of our reserves and estimates in general, reductions to our estimated proved oil and gas reserves and estimated future net revenues may not be required in the future, and/or that our estimated reserves may not present and/or commercially extractable. If our reserve estimates are incorrect, we may be forced to write down the capitalized costs of our oil and gas properties.
 
Decommissioning costs are unknown and may be substantial. Unplanned costs could divert resources from other projects.
 
We may become responsible for costs associated with abandoning and reclaiming wells, facilities and pipelines which we use for production of oil and natural gas reserves. Abandonment and reclamation of these facilities and the costs associated therewith is often referred to as “decommissioning.” We accrue a liability for decommissioning costs associated with our wells, but have not established any cash reserve account for these potential costs in respect of any of our properties. If decommissioning is required before economic depletion of our properties or if our estimates of the costs of decommissioning exceed the value of the reserves remaining at any particular time to cover such decommissioning costs, we may have to draw on funds from other sources to satisfy such costs. The use of other funds to satisfy such decommissioning costs could impair our ability to focus capital investment in other areas of our business.
 
We may have difficulty distributing production, which could harm our financial condition.
 
In order to sell the oil and natural gas that we are able to produce, if any, the operators of the wells we obtain interests in may have to make arrangements for storage and distribution to the market. We will rely on local infrastructure and the availability of transportation for storage and shipment of our products, but infrastructure development and storage and transportation facilities may be insufficient for our needs at commercially acceptable terms in the localities in which we operate. This situation could be particularly problematic to the extent that our operations are conducted in remote areas that are difficult to access, such as areas that are distant from shipping and/or pipeline facilities. These factors may affect our and potential partners’ ability to explore and develop properties and to store and transport oil and natural gas production, increasing our expenses.
 
Furthermore, weather conditions or natural disasters, actions by companies doing business in one or more of the areas in which we will operate, or labor disputes may impair the distribution of oil and/or natural gas and in turn diminish our financial condition or ability to maintain our operations.
 
Our business will suffer if we cannot obtain or maintain necessary licenses.
 
Our operations will require licenses, permits and in some cases renewals of licenses and permits from various governmental authorities. Our ability to obtain, sustain or renew such licenses and permits on acceptable terms is subject to change in regulations and policies and to the discretion of the applicable governments, among other factors. Our inability to obtain, or our loss of or denial of extension of, any of these licenses or permits could hamper our ability to produce revenues from our operations.
 
Challenges to our properties may impact our financial condition.
 
Title to oil and gas interests is often not capable of conclusive determination without incurring substantial expense. While we have made and intend to make appropriate inquiries into the title of properties and other development rights we have acquired and intend to acquire, title defects may exist. In addition, we may be unable to obtain adequate insurance for title defects, on a commercially reasonable basis or at all. If title defects do exist, it is possible that we may lose all or a portion of our right, title and interests in and to the properties to which the title defects relate. If our property rights are reduced, our ability to conduct our exploration, development and production activities may be impaired. To mitigate title problems, common industry practice is to obtain a title opinion from a qualified oil and gas attorney prior to the drilling operations of a well.
 
We rely on technology to conduct our business, and our technology could become ineffective or obsolete.
 
We rely on technology, including geographic and seismic analysis techniques and economic models, to develop our reserve estimates and to guide our exploration, development and production activities. We and our operator partners will be required to continually enhance and update our technology to maintain its efficacy and to avoid obsolescence. The costs of doing so may be substantial and may be higher than the costs that we anticipate for technology maintenance and development. If we are unable to maintain the efficacy of our technology, our ability to manage our business and to compete may be impaired. Further, even if we are able to maintain technical effectiveness, our technology may not be the most efficient means of reaching our objectives, in which case we may incur higher operating costs than we would were our technology more efficient.
 
 
18
 

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS - continued
 
The loss of key personnel would directly affect our efficiency and profitability.
 
Our future success is dependent, in a large part, on retaining the services of our current management team. Our executive officers possess a unique and comprehensive knowledge of our industry and related matters that are vital to our success within the industry. The knowledge, leadership and technical expertise of these individuals would be difficult to replace. The loss of one or more of our officers could have a material adverse effect on our operating and financial performance, including our ability to develop and execute our long-term business strategy. We do not maintain key-man life insurance with respect to any employees. We do have employment agreements with each of our executive officers.
 
We have limited management and staff and are dependent upon partnering arrangements and third-party service providers.
 
We currently have two full-time employees, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer. The loss of these individuals would have an adverse effect on our business, as we have very limited personnel. We leverage the services of other independent consultants and contractors to perform various professional services, including engineering, oil and gas well planning and supervision, and land, legal, environmental and tax services. We also pursue alliances with partners in the areas of geological and geophysical services and prospect generation, evaluation and prospect leasing. Our dependence on third-party consultants and service providers create a number of risks, including but not limited to:
 
the possibility that such third parties may not be available to us as and when needed; and
 
the risk that we may not be able to properly control the timing and quality of work conducted with respect to its projects.
 
If we experience significant delays in obtaining the services of such third parties or they perform poorly, our results of operations and stock price could be materially adversely affected.
 
Our officers and directors control a significant percentage of our current outstanding common stock and their interests may conflict with those of our stockholders.
 
As of the date of this report, our executive officers and directors collectively and beneficially own approximately 28% of our outstanding common stock (see Item 12 of this report for an explanation of how this number is computed). This concentration of voting control gives these affiliates substantial influence over any matters which require a stockholder vote, including without limitation the election of directors and approval of merger and/or acquisition transactions, even if their interests may conflict with those of other stockholders. It could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control or otherwise discouraging a potential acquirer from attempting to obtain control of us. This could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock or prevent our stockholders from realizing a premium over the then prevailing market prices for their shares of common stock.
 
In the future, we may incur significant increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management may be required to devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives.
 
In the future, we may incur significant legal, accounting, and other expenses as a result of operating as a public company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), as well as new rules subsequently implemented by the SEC, have imposed various requirements on public companies, including requiring changes in corporate governance practices. Our management and other personnel will need to devote a substantial amount of time to these new compliance initiatives. Moreover, these rules and regulations will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. For example, we expect these new rules and regulations to make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to incur substantial costs to maintain the same or similar coverage.
 
In addition, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective internal controls for financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures. In particular, we are required to perform system and process evaluation and testing on the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting, as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. In performing this evaluation and testing, management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting is effective as of December 31, 2018. Our continued compliance with Section 404, will require that we incur substantial accounting expense and expend significant management efforts. We do not have an internal audit group. We have however, engaged independent professional assistance for the evaluation and testing of internal controls.
   
 
19
 
 
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS - continued
 
Terrorist attacks or cyber-incidents could result in information theft, data corruption, operational disruption and/or financial loss.
 
Like most companies, we have become increasingly dependent upon digital technologies, including information systems, infrastructure and cloud applications and services, to operate our businesses, to process and record financial and operating data, communicate with our business partners, analyze mine and mining information, estimate quantities of coal reserves, as well as other activities related to our businesses. Strategic targets, such as energy-related assets, may be at greater risk of future terrorist or cyber-attacks than other targets in the United States. Deliberate attacks on, or security breaches in, our systems or infrastructure, or the systems or infrastructure of third parties, or cloud-based applications could lead to corruption or loss of our proprietary data and potentially sensitive data, delays in production or delivery, difficulty in completing and settling transactions, challenges in maintaining our books and records, environmental damage, communication interruptions, other operational disruptions and third-party liability. Our insurance may not protect us against such occurrences. Consequently, it is possible that any of these occurrences, or a combination of them, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Further, as cyber incidents continue to evolve, we may be required to expend additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective measures or to investigate and remediate any vulnerability to cyber incidents.
 
We have adopted an Information Security Policy and Acceptable Use Statement to address precautions with respect to data security and we have created an Incident Response Plan which outlines appropriate responses in case of a reported breach. These policies and plan have been executed in coordination with our independent Information Technology Service provider.
 
Certain Factors Related to Our Common Stock
 
There presently is a limited market for our common stock, and the price of our common stock may be volatile.
 
Our common stock is currently quoted on The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC. There could be volatility in the volume and market price of our common stock moving forward. This volatility may be caused by a variety of factors, including the lack of readily available quotations, the absence of consistent administrative supervision of “bid” and “ask” quotations, and generally lower trading volume. In addition, factors such as quarterly variations in our operating results, changes in financial estimates by securities analysts, or our failure to meet our or their projected financial and operating results, litigation involving us, factors relating to the oil and gas industry, actions by governmental agencies, national economic and stock market considerations, as well as other events and circumstances beyond our control could have a significant impact on the future market price of our common stock and the relative volatility of such market price.
 
Securities analysts may not initiate coverage or continue to cover our shares of common stock and this may have a negative impact on the market price of our shares of common stock.
 
The trading market for our shares of common stock will depend, in part, on the research and reports that securities analysts publish about our business and our shares of common stock. We do not have any control over these analysts. If securities analysts do not cover our shares of common stock, the lack of research coverage may adversely affect the market price of those shares. If securities analysts do cover our shares of common stock, they could issue reports or recommendations that are unfavorable to the price of our shares of common stock, and they could downgrade a previously favorable report or recommendation, and in either case our share prices could decline as a result of the report. If one or more of these analysts does not initiate coverage, ceases to cover our shares of common stock or fails to publish regular reports on our business, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause our share prices or trading volume to decline.
 
Offers or availability for sale of a substantial number of shares of our common stock may cause the price of our common stock to decline.
 
Our stockholders could sell substantial amounts of common stock in the public market, including shares sold upon the filing of a registration statement that registers such shares and/or upon the expiration of any statutory holding period under Rule 144 of the Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”), if available, or upon the expiration of trading limitation periods. Such volume could create a circumstance commonly referred to as a market “overhang” and in anticipation of which the market price of our common stock could fall. Additionally, we have a large number of warrants that are presently exercisable. The exercise of a large amount of these securities followed by the subsequent sale of the underlying stock in the market would likely have a negative effect on our common stock’s market price. The existence of an overhang, whether or not sales have occurred or are occurring, also could make it more difficult for us to secure additional financing through the sale of equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and price that we deem reasonable or appropriate.
 
 
 
 
20
 
 
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS - continued
 
Our directors and officers have rights to indemnification.
 
Our Bylaws provide, as permitted by governing Nevada law, that we will indemnify our directors, officers, and employees, whether or not then in service as such, against all reasonable expenses actually and necessarily incurred by him or her in connection with the defense of any litigation to which the individual may have been made a party because he or she is or was a director, officer, or employee of the company. The inclusion of these provisions in the Bylaws may have the effect of reducing the likelihood of derivative litigation against directors and officers, and may discourage or deter stockholders or management from bringing a lawsuit against directors and officers for breach of their duty of care, even though such an action, if successful, might otherwise have benefited us and our stockholders.
 
We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock.
 
We do not anticipate paying cash dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future. The payment of dividends, if any, would be contingent upon our revenues and earnings, if any, capital requirements, and general financial condition. The payment of any dividends will be within the discretion of our Board of Directors. We presently intend to retain all earnings, if any, to implement our business strategy; accordingly, we do not anticipate the declaration of any dividends in the foreseeable future.
 
NASDAQ may delist our common stock from trading on its exchange, which could limit shareholders’ ability to trade our common stock.
 
As a listed company on NASDAQ, we are required to meet certain financial, public float, bid price and liquidity standards on an ongoing basis in order to continue the listing of our common stock. If we fail to meet these continued listing requirements, our common stock may be subject to delisting. If our common stock is delisted and we are not able to list our common stock on another national securities exchange, we expect our securities would be quoted on an over-the-counter market. If this were to occur, our shareholders could face significant material adverse consequences, including limited availability of market quotations for our common stock and reduced liquidity for the trading of our securities. In addition, we could experience a decreased ability to issue additional securities and obtain additional financing in the future.
 
Issuance of our stock in the future could dilute existing shareholders and adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
 
We have the authority to issue up to 150,000,000 shares of common stock and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, and to issue options and warrants to purchase shares of our common stock. We are authorized to issue significant amounts of common stock in the future, subject only to the discretion of our board of directors. These future issuances could be at values substantially below the price paid for our common stock by investors. In addition, we could issue large blocks of our stock to fend off unwanted tender offers or hostile takeovers without further shareholder approval. Because the trading volume of our common stock is relatively low, the issuance of our stock may have a disproportionately large impact on its price compared to larger companies.
 
The issuance of preferred stock in the future could adversely affect the rights of the holders of our common stock.
 
An issuance of preferred stock could result in a class of outstanding securities that would have preferences with respect to voting rights and dividends and in liquidation over the common stock and could, upon conversion or otherwise, have all of the rights of our common stock. Our board of directors’ authority to issue preferred stock could discourage potential takeover attempts or could delay or prevent a change in control through merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise by making these attempts more difficult or costly to achieve.
 
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
 
Not Applicable.
 
 
 
 
21
 
 
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
 
Our principal executive offices are located at 5700 W. Plano Parkway, Suite 3600, Plano, Texas 75093. We currently lease this office space which totals approximately 3,181 square feet. We believe that the condition and size of our offices are adequate for our current needs.
 
Investments in oil and gas properties during the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 are detailed as follows:
 
 
 
2018
 
 
2017
 
Property acquisition costs
 
$
1,072,047
 
 
$
7,227,362
 
Development costs
 
$
9,191,041
 
 
$
8,034,962
 
Exploratory costs
 
$
-
 
 
$
-
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Totals
 
$
10,263,088
 
 
$
15,262,324
 
 
Property acquisition costs presented above exclude interest capitalized into the full cost pool of $2,020,019 in 2018 and $1,010,868 in 2017.
 
Property acquisition cost relates to the Company’s acquisition of additional working interests in the Orogrande Project in west Texas and the acquisition of the Warwink Project, also in west Texas. The development costs include work in the Orogrande, Hazel, and Warwink projects in west Texas. No development costs were incurred for Oklahoma properties in 2018.
 
Oil and Natural Gas Reserves
 
Reserve Estimates
 
SEC Case. The following tables sets forth, as of December 31, 2018, our estimated net proved oil and natural gas reserves, the estimated present value (discounted at an annual rate of 10%) of estimated future net revenues before future income taxes (PV-10) and after future income taxes (Standardized Measure) of our proved reserves and our estimated net probable oil and natural gas reserves, each prepared using standard geological and engineering methods generally accepted by the petroleum industry and in accordance with assumptions prescribed by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). All of our reserves are located in the United States.
 
The PV-10 value is a widely used measure of value of oil and natural gas assets and represents a pre-tax present value of estimated cash flows discounted at ten percent. PV-10 is considered a non-GAAP financial measure as defined by the SEC. We believe that our PV-10 presentation is relevant and useful to our investors because it presents the estimated discounted future net cash flows attributable to our proved reserves before taking into account the related future income taxes, as such taxes may differ among various companies. We believe investors and creditors use PV-10 as a basis for comparison of the relative size and value of our proved reserves to the reserve estimates of other companies. PV-10 is not a measure of financial or operating performance under GAAP and neither it nor the Standardized Measure is intended to represent the current market value of our estimated oil and natural gas reserves. PV-10 should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for the standardized measure of discounted future net cash flows as defined under GAAP.
 
The estimates of our proved reserves and the PV-10 set forth herein reflect estimated future gross revenue to be generated from the production of proved reserves, net of estimated production and future development costs, using prices and costs under existing economic conditions at December 31, 2018. For purposes of determining prices, we used the average of prices received for each month within the 12-month period ended December 31, 2018, adjusted for quality and location differences, which was $62.04 per barrel of oil and $3.10 per MCF of gas. This average historical price is not a prediction of future prices. The amounts shown do not give effect to non-property related expenses, such as corporate general administrative expenses and debt service, future income taxes or to depreciation, depletion and amortization.
 
 
22
 
 
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES - continued
 
 
 
December 31, 2018  
 
 
December 31, 2018  
 
 
 
 Reserves    
 
 
Future Net Revenue (M$)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Present Value Discounted
 
Category
 
Oil (Bbls)
 
 
Gas (Mcf)
 
 
Total (BOE)
 
 
Total
 
 
at 10%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Proved Producing
  177,300 
  51,100 
  185,817 
 $4,027 
 $2,029 
Proved Undeveloped
  797,500 
  105,800 
  815,133 
 $15,313 
 $2,895 
Total Proved
  974,800 
  156,900 
  1,000,950 
 $19,340 
 $4,924 
 
    
    
    
    
    
 
Standardized Measure of Future Net Cash Flows Related to Proved Oil and Gas Properties
 
 $5,341 
 
    
    
    
    
    
Probable Undeveloped
  0 
  0 
  0 
 $- 
 $- 
 
 
 
December 31, 2017  
 
 
December 31, 2017
 
 
 
 Reserves    
 
 
Future Net Revenue (M$)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Present Value Discounted
 
Category
 
Oil (Bbls)
 
 
Gas (Mcf)
 
 
Total (BOE)
 
 
Total
 
 
at 10%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Proved Producing
  2,300 
  43,800 
  9,600 
 $132 
 $96 
Proved Nonproducing
  0 
  0 
  0 
 $- 
 $- 
Total Proved
  2,300 
  43,800 
  9,600 
 $132 
 $96 
 
    
    
    
    
    
 
Standardized Measure of Future Net Cash Flows Related to Proved Oil and Gas Properties
 
 $123 
 
    
    
    
    
    
Probable Undeveloped
  0 
  0 
  0 
 $- 
 $- 
 
The upward revisions of previous estimates from 2017 to 2018 of proved reserves of 972,500 BBLS and 113,100 MCF results primarily from 2018 reserve report calculations for the Company’s properties which includes reserves from producing properties in the Hazel and Warwink Projects for the first time.
 
Reserve values as of December 31, 2018 are related to a single producing well in Oklahoma, one in the Hazel Project, and one in the Warwink Project.
 
BOE equivalents are determined by combining barrels of oil with MCF of gas divided by six.
 
 
23
 
 
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES - continued
 
Standardized Measure of Oil & Gas Quantities - Volume Rollforward
Year Ended December 31, 2018
 
The following table sets forth the Company’s net proved reserves, including the changes therein, and proved developed reserves:
 
 
 
Crude Oil (Bbls)
 
 
Natural Gas (Mcf)
 
 
BOE
 
TOTAL PROVED RESERVES:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Beginning of period
  2,300 
  43,800 
  9,600 
Revisions of previous estimates
  21,257 
  (7,709)
  19,972 
Extensions, discoveries and other additions
  974,110 
  138,670 
  997,222 
    Divestiture of Reserves
  - 
  - 
  - 
Acquisition of Reserves
  - 
  - 
  - 
Production
  (22,887)
  (17,821)
  (25,857)
End of period
  974,780 
  156,940 
  1,000,937 
 
Standardized Measure of Oil & Gas Quantities - Volume Rollforward
Year Ended December 31, 2017
 
The following table sets forth the Company’s net proved reserves, including the changes therein, and proved developed reserves:
 
 
 
Crude Oil (Bbls)
 
 
Natural Gas (Mcf)
 
 
BOE
 
TOTAL PROVED RESERVES:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Beginning of period
  48,200 
  490,900 
  130,017 
Revisions of previous estimates
  (35,509)
  (437,841)
  (108,483)
Extensions, discoveries and other additions
  - 
  - 
  - 
Divestiture of Reserves
  - 
  - 
  - 
Acquisition of Reserves
  - 
  - 
  - 
Production
  (10,391)
  (9,259)
  (11,934)
End of period
  2,300 
  43,800 
  9,600 
 
24
 
 
Standardized Measure of Oil & Gas Quantities
Year Ended December 31, 2018 & 2017
 
The standardized measure of discounted future net cash flows relating to proved oil and natural gas reserves is as follows :
 
 
 
2018
 
 
2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Future cash inflows
 $46,335,070 
 $240,370 
Future production costs
  (15,042,900)
  (108,000)
Future development costs
  (11,740,000)
  - 
Future income tax expense
  - 
  - 
Future net cash flows
  19,552,170 
  132,370 
10% annual discount for estimated timing of cash flows
  (14,210,840)
  (9,102)
Standardized measure of discounted future net cash flows related to proved reserves
 $5,341,330 
 $123,268 
 
    
    
A summary of the changes in the standardized measure of discounted future net cash flows applicable to proved oil and natural gas reserves is as follows :
 
 
 
2018
 
 
2017
 
Balance, beginning of period
 $123,268 
 $340,916 
Net change in sales and transfer prices and in production (lifting) costs related to future production
  40,762 
  207,241 
Changes in estimated future development costs
  (8,718,999)
  116,934 
Net change due to revisions in quantity estimates
  289,740 
  (129,565)
Accretion of discount
  1,036 
  28,604 
Other
  (385,278)
  (43,372)
 
    
    
Net change due to extensions and discoveries
  14,467,005 
  - 
Net change due to sales of minerals in place
  - 
  - 
Sales and transfers of oil and gas produced during the period
  (476,204)
  (397,490)
Previously estimated development costs incurred during the period
  - 
  - 
Net change in income taxes
  - 
  - 
Balance, end of period
 $5,341,330 
 $123,268 
 
Due to the inherent uncertainties and the limited nature of reservoir data, both proved and probable reserves are subject to change as additional information becomes available. The estimates of reserves, future cash flows, and present value are based on various assumptions, including those prescribed by the SEC, and are inherently imprecise. Although we believe these estimates are reasonable, actual future production, cash flows, taxes, development expenditures, operating expenses, and quantities of recoverable oil and natural gas reserves may vary substantially from these estimates.
 
In estimating probable reserves, it should be noted that those reserve estimates inherently involve greater risk and uncertainty than estimates of proved reserves. While analysis of geoscience and engineering data provides reasonable certainty that proved reserves can be economically producible from known formations under existing conditions and within a reasonable time, probable reserves involve less certainty than reserves with a higher classification due to less data to support their ultimate recovery. Probable reserves have not been discounted for the additional risk associated with future recovery. Prospective investors should be aware that as the categories of reserves decrease with certainty, the risk of recovering reserves at the PV-10 calculation increases. The reserves and net present worth discounted at 10% relating to the different categories of proved and probable have not been adjusted for risk due to their uncertainty of recovery and thus are not comparable and should not be summed into total amounts.
 
Reserve Estimation Process, Controls and Technologies
 
The reserve estimates, including PV-10 estimates, set forth above were prepared by PeTech Enterprises, Inc. for the Company’s properties in Oklahoma and Texas. A copy of their full reports with regard to our reserves is attached as Exhibit 99.1 to this annual report on Form 10-K. These calculations were prepared using standard geological and engineering methods generally accepted by the petroleum industry and in accordance with SEC financial accounting and reporting standards.
 
25
 
 
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES - continued
 
We do not have any employees with specific reservoir engineering qualifications in the company. Our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer worked closely with PeTech Enterprises Inc. in connection with their preparation of our reserve estimates, including assessing the integrity, accuracy, and timeliness of the methods and assumptions used in this process.
 
PeTech Enterprises, Inc. (“PeTech”), who provided 2018 reserve estimates for our properties, is a Texas based family owned oil and gas production and investment company that provides reservoir engineering, economics and valuation support to energy banks, energy companies and law firms as an expert witness. PeTech has been in business since 1982. Amiel David is the President of PeTech and the primary technical person in charge of the estimates of reserves and associated cash flow and economics on behalf of the company for the results presented in its reserves report to us. He has a PhD in Petroleum Engineering from Stanford University. He is a registered Professional Engineer in the state of Texas (PE #50970), granted in 1982, a member of the Society of Petroleum Engineers and a member of the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers.
 
Proved Nonproducing Reserves
 
As of December 31, 2018, our proved non producing reserves totaled 815,133 barrels of oil equivalents (BOE) compared to -0- as of December 31, 2017, an increase of 815,133 BOE. The net reserves change associated with nonproducing reserves is an increase of approximately 797,500 bbls of oil and an increase of approximately 105,800 Mcf of gas (calculated with a gas-oil equivalency factor of six).
 
We made investments and development progress during 2018 to further develop proved producing reserves in the Orogrande, Hazel, and Warwink Projects in the Permian Basin in West Texas. As of December 31, 2018 four test wells have been developed in the Orogrande Project and six test wells have been developed in the Hazel Project including the Flying B #3 which has been in continuous production since September, 2017. The Warwink Project which was initiated in 2018 has continuing production from the Warwink # 47H well beginning in October, 2018.
 
Our current drilling plans, subject to sufficient capital resources and the periodic evaluation of interim drilling results and other potential investment opportunities, include drilling additional evaluation wells in the Orogrande and Hazel AMI’s to continue to derisk the prospects and obtain initial production from the development efforts. The next scheduled wells in the Hazel Project are scheduled to spud near the end of May, 2019.
 
Production, Price, and Production Cost History
 
During the year ended December 31, 2018, we produced and sold 22,887 barrels of oil net to our interest at an average sale price of $54.93 per bbl. We produced and sold 17,821 MCF of gas net to our interest at an average sales price of $1.41 per MCF. Our average production cost including lease operating expenses and direct production taxes was $31.17 per BOE. Our depreciation, depletion, and amortization expense was $45.39 per BOE.
 
During the year ended December 31, 2017, we produced and sold 10,391 barrels of oil net to our interest at an average sale price of $52.37 per bbl. We produced and sold 9,259 MCF of gas net to our interest at an average sales price of $2.84 per MCF. Our average production cost including lease operating expenses and direct production taxes was $14.51 per BOE. Our depreciation, depletion, and amortization expense was $43.67 per BOE.
 
The changes in production, revenue, and operating costs were impacted by the production from the Flying B #3 well in the Hazel Project which began in late September, 2017 and production from the Warwink 47 H beginning in October, 2018.
 
Our 2018 production was from properties located in central Oklahoma and in west Texas. Reserves at the beginning of 2018 from central Oklahoma comprised more than 15% of total reserves. For 2018, approximately 1,849 BOE was produced in Oklahoma and 24,008 BOE produced in Texas, or 7% from Oklahoma and 93% from wells in west Texas.

 
 
26
 
 
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES - continued
 
Quarterly Revenue and Production by State for 2018 and 2017 are detailed as follows:
 
Property
 
Quarter
 
 
Oil Production {BBLS}
 
 
Gas Production {MCF}
 
 
 Oil Revenue
 
 
 Gas Revenue
 
 
 Total Revenue
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Oklahoma
    Q1 - 2018 
  72 
  2,008 
  4,463 
  5,202 
 $9,665 
Hazel (TX)
    Q1 - 2018 
  7,786 
  0 
  471,498 
  - 
 $471,498 
 
Total Q1-2018
 
  7,858 
  2,008 
 $475,961 
 $5,202 
 $481,163 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
Oklahoma
    Q2 - 2018 
  446 
  1,857 
  10,912 
  2,690 
 $13,602 
Hazel (TX)
    Q2 - 2018 
  4,368 
  0 
  266,506 
  - 
 $266,506 
Meco (TX)
    Q2 - 2018 
  51 
  0 
  3,155 
  - 
 $3,155 
 
Total Q2-2018
 
  4,865 
  1,857 
 $280,573 
 $2,690 
 $283,263 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
Oklahoma
    Q3 - 2018 
  41 
  2,324 
 $1,264 
 $3,845 
 $5,109 
Hazel (TX)
    Q3 - 2018 
  2,283 
  0 
 $123,566 
 $- 
 $123,566 
Meco (TX)
    Q3 - 2018 
  0 
  0 
 $- 
 $- 
 $- 
 
Total Q3-2018
 
  2,324 
  2,324 
 $124,830 
 $3,845 
 $128,675 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
Oklahoma
    Q4 - 2018 
  94 
  986 
 $4,878 
 $1,104 
 $5,982 
Hazel (TX)
    Q4 - 2018 
  3,779 
  0 
 $178,015 
 $- 
 $178,015 
Meco (TX)
    Q4 - 2018 
  3,967 
  10,646 
 $192,916 
 $12,348 
 $205,264 
 
Total Q4-2018
 
  7,840 
  11,632 
 $375,809 
 $13,452 
 $389,261 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
 
2018 Year To Date
 
  22,887 
  17,821 
 $1,257,173 
 $25,189 
 $1,282,362 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
Oklahoma
    Q1 - 2017 
  101 
  2,303 
 $5,346 
 $7,604 
 $12,950 
Hazel (TX)
    Q1 - 2017 
  0 
  0 
  - 
  - 
  - 
 
Total Q1-2017
 
  101 
  2,303 
 $5,346 
 $7,604 
 $12,950 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
Oklahoma
    Q2 - 2017 
  140 
  2,332 
  6,594 
  6,709 
  13,303 
Hazel (TX)
    Q2 - 2017 
  0 
  0 
  - 
  - 
  - 
 
Total Q2-2017
 
  140 
  2,332 
 $6,594 
 $6,709 
 $13,303 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
Oklahoma
    Q3 - 2017 
  132 
  2,041 
  5,733 
  3,727 
  9,460 
Hazel (TX)
    Q3 - 2017 
  204 
  0 
  8,836 
  - 
  8,836 
 
Total Q3-2017
 
  336 
  2,041 
 $14,569 
 $3,727 
 $18,296 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
Oklahoma
    Q4 - 2017 
  84 
  2,583 
  4,739 
  8,227 
  12,966 
Hazel (TX)
    Q4 - 2017 
  9,730 
  0 
  512,984 
  - 
  512,984 
 
Total Q4-2017
 
  9,814 
  2,583 
 $517,723 
 $8,227 
 $525,950 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
 
Year Ended 12/31/17
 
  10,391 
  9,259 
 $544,232 
 $26,267 
 $570,499 
 
 
27
 
 
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES - continued
 
Drilling Activity and Productive Wells
 
Combined Well Status
 
The following table summarizes drilling activity and Well Status as of December 31, 2018:
 
 
 
Cumulative Well Status
 
 
Wells Drilled
 
 
Cumulative Well Status
 
Drilling Activity/Well Status
 
at 12/31/2018
 
 
  2018      
 
 
at 12/31/2017
 
 
 
Gross
 
 
Net
 
 
Gross
 
 
Net
 
 
Gross
 
 
Net
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Development Wells:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Productive -Texas (Hazel)
  1.00 
  0.80 
  - 
  - 
  1.00 
  0.80 
Productive -Texas (Warwink)
  1.00 
  0.13 
  1.00 
  0.13 
  - 
  - 
Productive - Okla
  2.00 
  0.40 
  - 
  - 
  2.00 
  0.40 
Test Wells (Dry) - Orogrande
  6.00 
  3.66 
  4.00 
  2.71 
  2.00 
  0.95 
Test Wells (Dry) - Hazel
  4.00 
  3.20 
  2.00 
  1.60 
  2.00 
  1.60 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
 
Exploration Wells:
 
    
    
    
    
Productive
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
Dry
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
 
Total Drilled Wells:
 
    
    
    
Productive -Texas
  2.00 
  0.93 
  1.00 
  0.13 
  1.00 
  0.80 
Productive - Okla
  2.00 
  0.40 
  - 
  - 
  2.00 
  0.40 
Test Wells (Dry)
  10.00 
  6.86 
  6.00 
  4.31 
  4.00 
  2.55 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
 
Acquired Wells:
 
    
    
    
    
Productive -Texas
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
Productive - Okla
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
 
Total Wells:
 
    
    
    
    
    
Productive -Texas
  2.00 
  0.93 
  1.00 
  0.13 
  1.00 
  0.80 
Productive - Okla
  2.00 
  0.40 
  - 
  - 
  2.00 
  0.40 
Test Wells (Dry)
  10.00 
  6.86 
  6.00 
  4.31 
  4.00 
  2.55 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
Total
  14.00 
  8.19 
  7.00 
  4.44 
  7.00 
  3.75 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
 
Well Type:
 
    
    
    
    
    
Oil
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
Gas
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
Combination -Oil and Gas
  4.00 
  1.33 
  1.00 
  0.13 
  3.00 
  1.20 
Test Wells (Dry)
  10.00 
  6.86 
  6.00 
  4.31 
  4.00 
  2.55 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
Total
  14.00 
  8.19 
  7.00 
  4.44 
  7.00 
  3.75 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
 
 
28
 
 
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES - continued
 
Our acreage positions at December 31, 2018 are summarized as follows:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
TRCH Interest
 
 
TRCH Interest
 
 
 
Total Acres
 
 
Developed Acres
 
 
Undeveloped Acres
 
Leasehold Interests - 12/31/2018
 
Gross
 
 
Net
 
 
Gross
 
 
Net
 
 
Gross
 
 
Net
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Texas -
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Orogrande
 
 
133,000
 
 
 
90,108
 
 
 
-
 
 
 
-
 
 
 
133,000
 
 
 
90,108
 
Hazel Project
 
 
12,000
 
 
 
9,600
 
 
 
320
 
 
 
256
 
 
 
11,680
 
 
 
9,344
 
Warwink Properties
 
 
1,400
 
 
 
175
 
 
 
1,400
 
 
 
175
 
 
 
-
 
 
 
-
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Oklahoma -
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Viking
 
 
640
 
 
 
192
 
 
 
640
 
 
 
192
 
 
 
-
 
 
 
-
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
 
 
147,040
 
 
 
100,075
 
 
 
2,360
 
 
 
623
 
 
 
144,680
 
 
 
99,452
 
 
Current Projects
 
As of December 31, 2018, we had interests in four oil and gas projects: the Orogrande Project in Hudspeth County, Texas, the Hazel Project in Sterling, Tom Green, and Irion Counties, Texas, the Winkler Project in Winkler County, Texas, and the Hunton wells in partnership with Husky Ventures in central Oklahoma.
 
See the description under “Current Projects” above under “Item 1. Business” for information and disclosure regarding these projects which description is incorporated herein by reference.
 
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
 
None.
 
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
 
Not Applicable.
 
29
 
 
 PART II
 
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
 
Our common stock is quoted on The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC under the symbol, “TRCH.” Trading in our common stock has historically been limited and occasionally sporadic and the quotations set forth below are not necessarily indicative of actual market conditions.
 
Record Holders
 
As of March 8, 2019, there were approximately 225 stockholders of record of our common stock, and we estimate that there were approximately 3,800 additional beneficial stockholders who hold their shares in “street name” through a brokerage firm or other institution. As of March 15, 2019, we have a total of 71,695,865 shares of common stock issued and outstanding.
 
The holders of the common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. Holders of the common stock have no preemptive rights and no right to convert their common stock into any other securities. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock.
 
Equity Compensation Plan Information
 
The following table sets forth all equity compensation plans as of December 31, 2018:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Number of
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
securities
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
remaining
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
available
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
for future
 
 
Number of
 
 
 
 
issuance
 
 
securities to
 
Weighted-
 
 
under
 
 
be issued
 
average
 
 
equity
 
 
upon
 
exercise
 
 
compensation
 
 
exercise of
 
price of
 
 
plans
 
 
outstanding
 
outstanding
 
 
(excluding
 
 
options,
 
options,
 
 
securities
 
 
warrants
 
warrants
 
 
reflected in
Plan Category
 
and rights
 
and rights
 
 
column (a))
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders
 
8,014,931
 
$
1.48
 
 
1,985,069
 
Sales of Unregistered Securities
 
Other than the sales below, all equity securities that we have sold during the period covered by this report that were not registered under the Securities Act have previously been included in a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or in a Current Report on Form 8-K.
 
All of the above sales of securities described in this Item 2 were sold under the exemption from registration provided by Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933 and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. The issuances of securities did not involve a “public offering” based upon the following factors: (i) the issuances of securities were isolated private transactions; (ii) a limited number of securities were issued to a limited number of purchasers; (iii) there were no public solicitations; (iv) the investment intent of the purchasers; and (v) the restriction on transferability of the securities issued.
 
ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
 
Not Applicable.
 
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Information set forth and discussed in this Management’s Discussion and Analysis and Results of Operations is derived from our historical financial statements and the related notes thereto which are included in this Form 10-K. The following information and discussion should be read in conjunction with such financial statements and notes. Additionally, this Management’s Discussion and Analysis and Plan of Operations contain certain statements that are not strictly historical and are “forward-looking” statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and involve a high degree of risk and uncertainty. Actual results may differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements due to other risks and uncertainties that exist in our operations, development efforts, and business environment, and due to other risks and uncertainties relating to our ability to obtain additional capital in the future to fund our planned expansion, the demand for oil and natural gas, and other general economic factors.
 
 
30
 
 
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS - continued
 
All forward-looking statements included herein are based on information available to us as of the date hereof, and we assume no obligation to update any such forward-looking statements.
 
Summary of Key Results
 
Overview
 
We are engaged in the acquisition, exploration, exploitation, and/or development of oil and natural gas properties in the United States.
 
During the year ended December 31, 2016 the Board of Directors initiated a review of Company operations in view of the divestiture of its Oklahoma properties, which included the previous sale of the Chisholm Trail and Cimarron properties. During 2016 development had continued on the Orogrande Project in West Texas and in April, 2016, the Company acquired the Hazel Project in the Midland Basin also in West Texas. These West Texas properties demonstrate significant potential and future production capabilities based upon the analysis of scientific data being gathered in the day by day development activity. Therefore, the Board has determined to focus its efforts and capital on these projects to maximize shareholder value for the long run.
 
During 2017 the Company increased its commitment to the Orogrande and Hazel Projects. Additional working interests were acquired and test wells were drilled on the properties which is detailed in the Properties section of this filing. Near the end of 2017 the Warwink Project, also in West Texas, was acquired.
 
During 2018 the Company continued development in the Orogrande and Hazel Projects. Additional test wells were drilled to capture additional science data to support lease value. Production from the Hazel Flying B #3 continued through 2018. The carried well provision of the Warwink acquisition in 2017 was fulfilled with the drilling of the Warwink #47-H. That well began production in October, 2018.
 
The strategy in divesting of projects other than the Orogrande Project was to refocus on the greatest potential future value for the Company while systematically eliminating debt as noncore assets are sold and operations are streamlined.
 
The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our audited financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 included herewith. This discussion should not be construed to imply that the results discussed herein will necessarily continue into the future, or that any conclusion reached herein will necessarily be indicative of actual operating results in the future. Such discussion represents only the best present assessment by our management.
 
Historical Results for the Years Ended December 31, 2018 and 2017
 
For the year ended December 31, 2018, we had a net loss of $5,806,612 compared to a net loss of $919,910 for the year ended December 31, 2017. The difference is primarily due to increased general and administrative and depletion and depreciation expense and the impact of a nonrecurring income item of $2,781,500 received in 2017.
 
Revenues and Cost of Revenues
 
For the year ended December 31, 2018, we had production revenue of $1,282,362 compared to $570,499 of production revenue for the year ended December 31, 2017. Refer to the table of production and revenue for 2018 and 2017 included below. Our cost of revenue, consisting of lease operating expenses and production taxes, was $806,158, and $173,187 for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
 
The change in revenue was impacted by the new production from the Flying B #3 well in the Hazel Project that began in late September, 2017 and production from the Warwink #47H which began production in October, 2018.
 
 
31
 
 
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS - continued
 
Production and Revenue are detailed as follows:
 
Property
 
Quarter
 
 
Oil Production {BBLS}
 
 
Gas Production {MCF}
 
 
 Oil Revenue
 
 
 Gas Revenue
 
 
 Total Revenue
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Oklahoma
    Q1 - 2018 
  72 
  2,008 
  4,463 
  5,202 
 $9,665 
Hazel (TX)
    Q1 - 2018 
  7,786 
  0 
  471,498 
  - 
 $471,498 
 
Total Q1-2018
 
  7,858 
  2,008 
 $475,961 
 $5,202 
 $481,163 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
Oklahoma
    Q2 - 2018 
  446 
  1,857 
  10,912 
  2,690 
 $13,602 
Hazel (TX)
    Q2 - 2018 
  4,368 
  0 
  266,506 
  - 
 $266,506 
Meco (TX)
    Q2 - 2018 
  51 
  0 
  3,155 
  - 
 $3,155 
 
Total Q2-2018
 
  4,865 
  1,857 
 $280,573 
 $2,690 
 $283,263 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
Oklahoma
    Q3 - 2018 
  41 
  2,324 
 $1,264 
 $3,845 
 $5,109 
Hazel (TX)
    Q3 - 2018 
  2,283 
  0 
 $123,566 
 $- 
 $123,566 
Meco (TX)
    Q3 - 2018 
  0 
  0 
 $- 
 $- 
 $- 
 
Total Q3-2018
 
  2,324 
  2,324 
 $124,830 
 $3,845 
 $128,675 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
Oklahoma
    Q4 - 2018 
  94 
  986 
 $4,878 
 $1,104 
 $5,982 
Hazel (TX)
    Q4 - 2018 
  3,779 
  0 
 $178,015 
 $- 
 $178,015 
Meco (TX)
    Q4 - 2018 
  3,967 
  10,646 
 $192,916 
 $12,348 
 $205,264 
 
Total Q4-2018
 
  7,840 
  11,632 
 $375,809 
 $13,452 
 $389,261 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
 
2018 Year To Date
 
  22,887 
  17,821 
 $1,257,173 
 $25,189 
 $1,282,362 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
Oklahoma
    Q1 - 2017 
  101 
  2,303 
 $5,346 
 $7,604 
 $12,950 
Hazel (TX)
    Q1 - 2017 
  0 
  0 
  - 
  - 
  - 
 
Total Q1-2017
 
  101 
  2,303 
 $5,346 
 $7,604 
 $12,950 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
Oklahoma
    Q2 - 2017 
  140 
  2,332 
  6,594 
  6,709 
  13,303 
Hazel (TX)
    Q2 - 2017 
  0 
  0 
  - 
  - 
  - 
 
Total Q2-2017
 
  140 
  2,332 
 $6,594 
 $6,709 
 $13,303 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
Oklahoma
    Q3 - 2017 
  132 
  2,041 
  5,733 
  3,727 
  9,460 
Hazel (TX)
    Q3 - 2017 
  204 
  0 
  8,836 
  - 
  8,836