UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-Q
 
(Mark One)
 
Quarterly report under Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the Quarter Ended March 31, 2019
 
Transition report under Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from _______ to _______.
 
Commission file number: 001-36247
 
TORCHLIGHT ENERGY RESOURCES, INC.

(Name of registrant in its charter)
 
Nevada
74-3237581
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
5700 West Plano Pkwy, Suite 3600
Plano, Texas 75093

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
 
(214) 432-8002

(Registrant's Telephone Number, Including Area Code)
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company Emerging growth company
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No
 
As of May 10, 2019, there were 72,003,607 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding (the only class of voting common stock).
 
1
 
 
FORM 10-Q
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
Note About Forward-Looking Statements
3
 
 
 
PART I
FINANCIAL INFORMATION
4
 
 
 
Item 1.
Consolidated Financial Statements
4
 
 
 
 
Consolidated Balance Sheets (Unaudited)
4
 
 
 
 
Consolidated Statements of Operations (Unaudited)
5
 
 
 
 
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (Unaudited)
6
 
 
 
 
Consolidated Statement of Stockholders' Equity (Unaudited)
7
 
 
 
 
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)
8
 
 
 
Item 2.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
21
 
 
 
Item 3.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
23
 
 
 
Item 4.
Controls and Procedures
23
 
 
 
PART II
OTHER INFORMATION
24
 
 
 
Item 1.
Legal Proceedings 
24
 
 
 
Item 2.
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
24
 
 
 
Item 6.
Exhibits
24
 
 
 
 
Signatures
26
 
 
 
 
2
 
 
NOTE ABOUT FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements include, among other things, statements regarding plans, objectives, goals, strategies, future events or performance and underlying assumptions and other statements, which are other than statements of historical facts. Forward-looking statements may appear throughout this report, including without limitation, Item 2 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Forward-looking statements generally can be identified by words such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “predicts,” “projects,” “will be,” “will continue,” “will likely result,” and similar expressions. These forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and assumptions that are subject to risks and uncertainties, which could cause our actual results to differ materially from those reflected in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in this report and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 and in particular, the risks discussed in our Form 10-K under the caption “Risk Factors” in Item 1A therein, and those discussed in other documents we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Important factors that in our view could cause material adverse effects on our financial condition and results of operations include, but are not limited to, risks associated with our future operating or financial results, our financial condition and liquidity, including our ability to pay amounts that we owe, obtain additional financing in the future to fund capital expenditures, acquisitions and other general corporate activities, our ability to continue as a going concern, our development of successful operations, the speculative nature of oil and gas exploration, the volatile price of oil and natural gas, the risk of incurring liability or damages as we conduct business operations due to the inherent dangers involved in oil and gas operations, our ability to rely on strategic relationships which are subject to change, the competitive nature of the oil and gas market, changes in governmental rules and regulations, and other factors that may cause actual results to be materially different from those described herein as anticipated, believed, estimated or expected. We undertake no obligation to revise or publicly release the results of any revision to any forward-looking statements, except as required by law. Given these risks and uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements.
 
As used herein, the “Company,” “Torchlight,” “we,” “our,” and similar terms include Torchlight Energy Resources, Inc. and its subsidiaries, unless the context indicates otherwise.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3
 
 
PART I FINANCIAL INFORMATION
 
ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
TORCHLIGHT ENERGY RESOURCES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS (Unaudited)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
March 31,
 
 
December 31,
 
 
 
2019
 
 
2018
 
ASSETS
Current assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash
 $1,595,507 
 $840,163 
Accounts receivable
  234,402 
  179,702 
Production revenue receivable
  157,734 
  294,715 
Prepayments - development costs
  2,360 
  146,422 
Prepaid expenses
  29,375 
  60,980 
Total current assets
  2,019,378 
  1,521,982 
 
    
    
Oil and gas properties, net
  39,028,782 
  36,565,461 
Office equipment, net
  1,228 
  4,076 
Other assets
  6,362 
  6,362 
 
    
    
TOTAL ASSETS
 $41,055,750 
 $38,097,881 
 
    
    
 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
 
Current liabilities:
    
    
Accounts payable
 $1,093,847 
 $729,806 
Accrued payroll
  861,176 
  816,176 
Related party payables
  45,000 
  45,000 
Due to working interest owners
  54,320 
  54,320 
Accrued interest payable
  881,709 
  553,370 
Total current liabilities
  2,936,052 
  2,198,672 
 
    
    
Unsecured promissory notes, net of discount and financing costs of $573,279
  11,991,018 
  11,862,080 
 
 at March 31, 2019 and $702,217 at December 31, 2018
 
Notes payable
  8,000,000 
  6,000,000 
Asset retirement obligations
  20,820 
  14,353 
 
    
    
Total liabilities
  22,947,890 
  20,075,105 
 
    
    
Commitments and contingencies
    
    
 
    
    
Stockholders’ equity:
    
    
 
Preferred stock, par value $0.001, 10,000,000 shares authorized;
 
    -0- issued and outstanding at March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018
  - 
  - 
Common stock, par value $0.001 per share; 150,000,000 shares authorized;
  71,914 
  70,116 
   
71,911,115 issued and outstanding at March 31, 2019
 
   
70,112,376 issued and outstanding at December 31, 2018
 
Additional paid-in capital
  109,028,125 
  107,266,965 
Accumulated deficit
  (90,992,179)
  (89,314,305)
Total stockholders' equity
  18,107,860 
  18,022,776 
 
    
    
TOTAL LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
 $41,055,750 
 $38,097,881 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these interim consolidated financial statements.
 
 
4
 
 
TORCHLIGHT ENERGY RESOURCES, INC.
 
 
 
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS (Unaudited)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Three Months
 
 
Three Months
 
 
 
Ended  
 
 
Ended
 
 
 
March 31, 2019
 
 
March 31, 2018
 
Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
Oil and gas sales
 $310,837 
 $481,164 
 
    
    
 
    
    
Cost of revenues
  (127,622)
  (228,903)
 
    
    
Gross profit
  183,215 
  252,261 
 
    
    
 
    
    
Operating expenses:
    
    
General and administrative expense
  (1,042,758)
  (1,675,840)
Depreciation, depletion and amortization
  (185,426)
  (107,133)
Impairment loss
  (474,357)
  (139,891)
     Total operating expenses
  (1,702,540)
  (1,922,864)
 
    
    
 
    
    
Other income (expense)
    
    
Interest expense and accretion of note discounts
  (158,599)
  (103,941)
Interest income
  50 
  - 
     Total income (expense)
  (158,549)
  (103,941)
 
    
    
 
    
    
Loss before income taxes
  (1,677,874)
  (1,774,544)
 
    
    
Provision for income taxes
  - 
  - 
 
    
    
Net loss
 $(1,677,874)
 $(1,774,544)
 
    
    
 
    
    
 
    
    
Loss per common share:
    
    
Basic and Diluted
 $(0.02)
 $(0.03)
 
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding:
 
    
Basic and Diluted
  70,771,643 
  62,160,902 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these interim consolidated financial statements.
 
5
 
 
TORCHLIGHT ENERGY RESOURCES, INC.
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (Unaudited)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Three Months
 
 
Three Months
 
 
 
Ended
 
 
Ended
 
 
 
March 31, 2019
 
 
March 31, 2018
 
Cash Flows From Operating Activities
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net loss
 $(1,677,874)
 $(1,774,544)
 
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash from operations:
 
Stock based compensation
  397,250 
  736,545 
Stock issued for interest payments on notes payable
  14,628 
  - 
Accrued interest payable in stock
  76,284 
  - 
Amortization of debt issuance costs
  71,647 
  - 
Accretion of note discounts
  57,291 
  44,858 
Depreciation, depletion and amortization
  185,426 
  107,133 
Impairment loss
  474,357 
  139,891 
Change in:
    
    
Accounts receivable
  (54,700)
  (15,847)
Production revenue receivable
  136,981 
  1,678 
Prepayments - development costs
  144,062 
  1,335,652 
Prepaid expenses
  31,605 
  21,628 
Accounts payable and accrued expenses
  (299,965)
  (137,025)
Accrued interest payable
  252,055 
  152,224 
Net cash from operating activities
  (190,953)
  612,193 
 
    
    
 
    
    
Cash Flows From Investing Activities
    
    
Investment in oil and gas properties
  (2,404,783)
  (4,663,018)
 
    
    
Net cash from investing activities
  (2,404,783)
  (4,663,018)
 
    
    
 
    
    
Cash Flows From Financing Activities
    
    
Issuance of common stock
  1,274,080 
  - 
Proceeds from promissory notes
  - 
  4,161,129 
Proceeds from notes payable
  2,000,000 
  - 
Proceeds from warrant exercise
  77,000 
  - 
Net cash from financing activities
  3,351,080 
  4,161,129 
 
    
    
 
    
    
Net increase in cash
  755,344 
  110,304 
 
    
    
Cash - beginning of period
  840,163 
  1,051,720 
 
    
    
Cash - end of period
 $1,595,507 
 $1,162,024 
 
    
    
 
    
    
Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information: (Non Cash Items)
Increase in accounts payable for property development costs
 $709,006 
 $- 
 
    
    
Cash paid for interest
 $371,765 
 $285,353 
Cash paid for income tax
 $- 
 $- 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these interim consolidated financial statements.
 
6
 
 
TORCHLIGHT ENERGY RESOURCES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY (Unaudited)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Common
 
 
 Common
 
 
 Additional
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 stock
 
 
 stock
 
 
 paid-in
 
 
Accumulated
 
 
 
 
 
 
 shares
 
 
amount
 
 
 capital
 
 
deficit
 
 
Total
 
Balance, December 31, 2018
  70,112,376 
 $70,116 
 $107,266,965 
 $(89,314,305)
 $18,022,776 
 
    
    
    
    
    
Issuance of common stock for services
  92,593 
  92 
  99,908 
    
  100,000 
Issuance of common stock for cash
  1,592,600 
  1,593 
  1,272,487 
    
  1,274,080 
Issuance of common stock for interest
  13,546 
  13 
  14,615 
    
  14,628 
Issuance of common stock for warrant exercise
  100,000 
  100 
  76,900 
    
  77,000 
Warrants issued for services
    
    
  186,000 
    
  186,000 
Stock options issued for services
    
    
  111,250 
    
  111,250 
Net loss
    
    
    
  (1,677,874)
  (1,677,874)
 
    
    
    
    
    
Balance, March 31, 2019
  71,911,115 
 $71,914 
 $109,028,125 
 $(90,992,179)
 $18,107,860 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these interim consolidated financial statements.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7
 
 
TORCHLIGHT ENERGY RESOURCES, INC
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED)
 
1. NATURE OF BUSINESS
 
Torchlight Energy Resources, Inc. (“Company”) was incorporated in October 2007 under the laws of the State of Nevada as Pole Perfect Studios, Inc. (“PPS”). From its incorporation to November 2010, the company was primarily engaged in business start-up activities.
 
On November 23, 2010, we entered into and closed a Share Exchange Agreement (the “Exchange Agreement”) between the major shareholders of PPS and the shareholders of Torchlight Energy, Inc. (“TEI”). As a result of the transactions effected by the Exchange Agreement, at closing TEI became our wholly-owned subsidiary, and the business of TEI became our sole business. TEI was incorporated under the laws of the State of Nevada in June 2010. We are engaged in the acquisition, exploitation and/or development of oil and natural gas properties in the United States. We operate our business through our subsidiaries Torchlight Energy Inc., Torchlight Energy Operating, LLC, Hudspeth Oil Corporation, Torchlight Hazel LLC, and Winkler Properties LLC.
 
 
2. GOING CONCERN
 
At March 31, 2019, the Company had not yet achieved profitable operations. We had a net loss of $1,677,874 for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and had accumulated losses of $90,992,179 since our inception. We expect to incur further losses in the development of our business. The Company had a working capital deficit as of March 31, 2019 of $916,674. These conditions raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern.
 
The Company’s ability to continue as a going concern is dependent on its ability to generate future profitable operations and/or to obtain the necessary financing to meet its obligations and repay its liabilities arising from normal business operations when they come due. Management’s plan to address the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern includes: (1) obtaining debt or equity funding from private placement or institutional sources; (2) obtain loans from financial institutions, where possible, or (3) participating in joint venture transactions with third parties. Although management believes that it will be able to obtain the necessary funding to allow the Company to remain a going concern through the methods discussed above, there can be no assurances that such methods will prove successful.
 
These consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern and therefore, the financial statements do not include any adjustments to reflect the possible future effects on the recoverability and classification of assets or the amount and classifications of liabilities that may result from the outcome of this uncertainty.
 
 
3. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
 
The Company maintains its accounts on the accrual method of accounting in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Accounting principles followed and the methods of applying those principles, which materially affect the determination of financial position, results of operations and cash flows are summarized below:
 
Use of estimates – The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and certain assumptions that affect the amounts reported in these consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from these estimates.
 
Basis of presentation—The financial statements are presented on a consolidated basis and include all of the accounts of Torchlight Energy Resources Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries, Torchlight Energy, Inc., Torchlight Energy Operating, LLC, Hudspeth Oil Corporation, Torchlight Hazel LLC, and Warwink Properties LLC. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.
 
These interim financial statements are unaudited and have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) regarding interim financial reporting. Certain disclosures have been condensed or omitted from these financial statements. Accordingly, they do not include all the information and notes required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) for complete consolidated financial statements, and should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018.
 
In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited financial condensed consolidated financial statements include all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring adjustments, necessary to fairly present the financial position as of, and the results of operations for, all periods presented. In preparing the accompanying financial statements, management has made certain estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts in the condensed financial statements and disclosures of contingencies. Actual results may differ from those estimates. The results for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of annual results. Certain reclassifications have been made to the prior period’s consolidated financial statements and related footnotes to conform them to the current period presentation.
 
 
8
 
 
TORCHLIGHT ENERGY RESOURCES, INC
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED)
 
3. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES- continued
 
Risks and uncertainties – The Company’s operations are subject to significant risks and uncertainties, including financial, operational, technological, and other risks associated with operating an emerging business, including the potential risk of business failure.
 
Concentration of risks – At times the Company’s cash balances are in excess of amounts guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. The Company’s cash is placed with a highly rated financial institution, and the Company regularly monitors the credit worthiness of the financial institutions with which it does business.
 
Fair value of financial instruments – Financial instruments consist of cash, receivables, payables and promissory notes, if any. The estimated fair values of cash, receivables, and payables approximate the carrying amount due to the relatively short maturity of these instruments. The carrying amounts of any promissory notes approximate their fair value giving affect for the term of the note and the effective interest rates.
 
For assets and liabilities that require re-measurement to fair value the Company categorizes them in a three-level fair value hierarchy as follows:
 
Level 1 inputs are quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
 
Level 2 inputs are quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets or inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly through market corroboration.
 
Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs based on management’s own assumptions used to measure assets and liabilities at fair value.
 
A financial asset or liability’s classification within the hierarchy is determined based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
 
Cash and cash equivalents - Cash and cash equivalents include certain investments in highly liquid instruments with original maturities of three months or less.
 
Accounts receivable – Accounts receivable consist of uncollateralized oil and natural gas revenues due under normal trade terms, as well as amounts due from working interest owners of oil and gas properties for their share of expenses paid on their behalf by the Company. Management reviews receivables periodically and reduces the carrying amount by a valuation allowance that reflects management’s best estimate of the amount that may not be collectible. As of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, no valuation allowance was considered necessary.
 
Oil and gas properties – The Company uses the full cost method of accounting for exploration and development activities as defined by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Under this method of accounting, the costs of unsuccessful, as well as successful, exploration and development activities are capitalized as properties and equipment. This includes any internal costs that are directly related to property acquisition, exploration and development activities but does not include any costs related to production, general corporate overhead or similar activities. Gain or loss on the sale or other disposition of oil and gas properties is not recognized, unless the gain or loss would significantly alter the relationship between capitalized costs and proved reserves.
 
Oil and gas properties include costs that are excluded from costs being depleted or amortized. Oil and natural gas property costs excluded represent investments in unevaluated properties and include non-producing leasehold, geological, and geophysical costs associated with leasehold or drilling interests and exploration drilling costs. The Company allocates a portion of its acquisition costs to unevaluated properties based on relative value. Costs are transferred to the full cost pool as the properties are evaluated over the life of the reservoir. Unevaluated properties are reviewed for impairment at least quarterly and are determined through an evaluation considering, among other factors, seismic data, requirements to relinquish acreage, drilling results, remaining time in the commitment period, remaining capital plan, and political, economic, and market conditions.
 
Gains and losses on the sale of oil and gas properties are not generally reflected in income unless the gain or loss would significantly alter the relationship between capitalized costs and proved reserves. Sales of less than 100% of the Company’s interest in the oil and gas property are treated as a reduction of the capital cost of the field, with no gain or loss recognized, as long as doing so does not significantly affect the unit-of-production depletion rate. Costs of retired equipment, net of salvage value, are usually charged to accumulated depreciation.
  
 
9
 
 
TORCHLIGHT ENERGY RESOURCES, INC
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED)
 
3. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES- continued  
 
Capitalized interest – The Company capitalizes interest on unevaluated properties during the periods in which they are excluded from costs being depleted or amortized. During the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company capitalized $670,963 and $418,130, respectively, of interest on unevaluated properties.
 
Depreciation, depletion, and amortization – The depreciable base for oil and natural gas properties includes the sum of all capitalized costs net of accumulated depreciation, depletion, and amortization (“DD&A”), estimated future development costs and asset retirement costs not included in oil and natural gas properties, less costs excluded from amortization. The depreciable base of oil and natural gas properties is amortized on a unit-of-production method.
 
Ceiling test – Future production volumes from oil and gas properties are a significant factor in determining the full cost ceiling limitation of capitalized costs. Under the full cost method of accounting, the Company is required to periodically perform a “ceiling test” that determines a limit on the book value of oil and gas properties. If the net capitalized cost of proved oil and gas properties, net of related deferred income taxes, plus the cost of unproved oil and gas properties, exceeds the present value of estimated future net cash flows discounted at 10 percent, net of related realizable tax affects, plus the cost of unproved oil and gas properties, the excess is charged to expense and reflected as additional accumulated DD&A. The Company recorded an impairment expense of $474,357 and $139,891 at March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, to recognize the adjustment required by the Ceiling Test.
  
The ceiling test calculation uses a commodity price assumption which is based on the unweighted arithmetic average of the price on the first day of each month for each month within the prior 12 month period and excludes future cash outflows related to estimated abandonment costs.
 
The determination of oil and gas reserves is a subjective process, and the accuracy of any reserve estimate depends on the quality of available data and the application of engineering and geological interpretation and judgment. Estimates of economically recoverable reserves and future net cash flows depend on a number of variable factors and assumptions that are difficult to predict and may vary considerably from actual results. In particular, reserve estimates for wells with limited or no production history are less reliable than those based on actual production. Subsequent re-evaluation of reserves and cost estimates related to future development of proved oil and gas reserves could result in significant revisions to proved reserves. Other issues, such as changes in regulatory requirements, technological advances, and other factors which are difficult to predict could also affect estimates of proved reserves in the future.
 
Asset retirement obligations –The fair value of a liability for an asset’s retirement obligation (“ARO”) is recognized in the period in which it is incurred if a reasonable estimate of fair value can be made, with the corresponding charge capitalized as part of the carrying amount of the related long-lived asset. The liability is accreted to its then-present value each subsequent period, and the capitalized cost is depleted over the useful life of the related asset. Abandonment costs incurred are recorded as a reduction of the ARO liability.
 
Inherent in the fair value calculation of an ARO are numerous assumptions and judgments including the ultimate settlement amounts, inflation factors, credit adjusted discount rates, timing of settlement, and changes in the legal, regulatory, environmental, and political environments. To the extent future revisions to these assumptions impact the fair value of the existing ARO liability, a corresponding adjustment is made to the oil and gas property balance. Settlements greater than or less than amounts accrued as ARO are recorded as a gain or loss upon settlement.
 
Income taxes - Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss carry forwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. A valuation allowance is established to reduce deferred tax assets if it is more likely than not that the related tax benefits will not be realized.
 
Authoritative guidance for uncertainty in income taxes requires that the Company recognize the financial statement benefit of a tax position only after determining that the relevant tax authority would more likely than not sustain the position following an examination. Management has reviewed the Company’s tax positions and determined there were no uncertain tax positions requiring recognition in the consolidated financial statements. Company tax returns remain subject to Federal and State tax examinations. Generally, the applicable statutes of limitation are three to four years from their respective filings.
 
Estimated interest and penalties related to potential underpayment on any unrecognized tax benefits are classified as a component of tax expense in the statement of operation. The Company has not recorded any interest or penalties associated with unrecognized tax benefits for any periods covered by these financial statements.
 
 
10
 
 
TORCHLIGHT ENERGY RESOURCES, INC
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED)
 
3. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES- continued
 
Share-based compensation – Compensation cost for equity awards is based on the fair value of the equity instrument on the date of grant and is recognized over the period during which an employee is required to provide service in exchange for the award.
 
The Company accounts for stock option awards using the calculated value method. The expected term was derived using the simplified method provided in Securities and Exchange Commission release Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 110, which averages an awards weighted average vesting period and contractual term for “plain vanilla” share options.
 
The Company accounts for any forfeitures of options when they occur. Previously recognized compensation cost for an award is reversed in the period that the award is forfeited.
 
The Company also issues equity awards to non-employees. The fair value of these option awards is estimated when the award recipient completes the contracted professional services. The Company recognizes expense for the estimated total value of the awards during the period from their issuance until performance completion.
 
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting, which simplifies the accounting for share-based payments granted to nonemployees for goods and services. Under this ASU, the guidance on such payments to nonemployees is aligned with the requirements for share-based payments granted to employees. ASU 2018-07 was effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, however the Company opted for early adoption effective July 1, 2018. In evaluating early adoption the Company determined that the change did not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
 
The Company values warrant and option awards using the Black-Scholes option pricing model.
 
Revenue recognition – On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, and the related guidance in ASC 340-40 (the new revenue standard), and related guidance on gains and losses on derecognition of nonfinancial assets ASC 610-20, using the modified retrospective method applied to those contracts which were not completed as of January 1, 2018. Under the modified retrospective method, the Company recognizes the cumulative effect of initially applying the new revenue standard as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings; however, no significant adjustment was required as a result of adopting the new revenue standard. Results for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2018 are presented under the new revenue standard. The impact of the adoption of the new revenue standard was immaterial to the Company’s net income.
 
The Company’s revenue is typically generated from contracts to sell natural gas, crude oil or NGLs produced from interests in oil and gas properties owned by the Company. Contracts for the sale of natural gas and crude oil are evidenced by (1) base contracts for the sale and purchase of natural gas or crude oil, which document the general terms and conditions for the sale, and (2) transaction confirmations, which document the terms of each specific sale. The transaction confirmations specify a delivery point which represents the point at which control of the product is transferred to the customer. These contracts frequently meet the definition of a derivative under ASC 815, and are accounted for as derivatives unless the Company elects to treat them as normal sales as permitted under that guidance. The Company elects to treat contracts to sell oil and gas production as normal sales, which are then accounted for as contracts with customers. The Company has determined that these contracts represent multiple performance obligations which are satisfied when control of the commodity transfers to the customer, typically through the delivery of the specified commodity to a designated delivery point.
 
Revenue is measured based on consideration specified in the contract with the customer, and excludes any amounts collected on behalf of third parties. The Company recognizes revenue in the amount that reflects the consideration it expects to be entitled to in exchange for transferring control of those goods to the customer. Amounts allocated in the Company’s price contracts are based on the standalone selling price of those products in the context of long-term contracts. Payment is generally received one or two months after the sale has occurred.
 
Gain or loss on derivative instruments is outside the scope of ASC 606 and is not considered revenue from contracts with customers subject to ASC 606. The Company may in the future use financial or physical contracts accounted for as derivatives as economic hedges to manage price risk associated with normal sales, or in limited cases may use them for contracts the Company intends to physically settle but do not meet all of the criteria to be treated as normal sales.
 
 
11
 
 
TORCHLIGHT ENERGY RESOURCES, INC
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
3. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES- continued
 
Producer Gas Imbalances. The Company applies the sales method of accounting for natural gas revenue. Under this method, revenues are recognized based on the actual volume of natural gas sold to purchasers.
 
Basic and diluted earnings (loss) per share Basic earnings (loss) per common share is computed by dividing net income (loss) available to common shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings (loss) per common share is computed in the same way as basic earnings (loss) per common share except that the denominator is increased to include the number of additional common shares that would be outstanding if all potential common shares had been issued and if the additional common shares were dilutive. The calculation of diluted earnings per share excludes 13,259,360 shares issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants and options because their effect would be anti-dilutive.
 
Environmental laws and regulations – The Company is subject to extensive federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations. Environmental expenditures are expensed or capitalized depending on their future economic benefit. The Company believes that it is in compliance with existing laws and regulations. The Company accrued no liability as of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018.
 
Recent accounting pronouncements – In February 2016 the FASB, issued ASU, 2016-02, Leases. The ASU requires companies to recognize on the balance sheet the assets and liabilities for the rights and obligations created by leased assets. ASU 2016-02 was effective for the Company in the first quarter of 2019. The Company evaluated adoption and determined that the change does not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
 
Other recently issued or adopted accounting pronouncements are not expected to have, or did not have, a material impact on the Company’s financial position or results from operations.
 
Subsequent events – The Company evaluated subsequent events through May 10, 2019, the date of issuance of these financial statements. Subsequent events, if any, are disclosed in Note 11.
 
 
4. OIL & GAS PROPERTIES
 
The following table presents the capitalized costs for oil & gas properties of the Company as of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018:
 
Evaluated costs subject to amortization
 $12,447,207 
 $11,664,586 
Unevaluated costs
  34,084,110 
  31,746,477 
Total capitalized costs
  46,531,317 
  43,411,063 
Less accumulated depreciation, depletion and amortization
  (7,502,535)
  (6,845,602)
Total oil and gas properties
 $39,028,782 
 $36,565,461 
 
Unevaluated costs as of March 31, 2019 include cumulative costs on developing projects including the Orogrande, Hazel, and Winkler projects in West Texas.
 
The Company identified impairment of $2,300,626 in 2017 related to its unevaluated properties. The Company adjusted the separation of evaluated versus unevaluated costs within its full cost pool to recognize the value impairment related to the expiration of unevaluated leases in 2017 in the amount of $2,300,626. The impact of this change was to increase the basis for calculation of future period’s depletion, depreciation and amortization to include $2,300,626 of cost which will effectively recognize the impairment on the Consolidated Statement of Operations over future periods. The $2,300,626 has also become an evaluated cost for purposes of Ceiling Tests and which may further recognize the impairment expense recognized in future periods. The impact of this cost reclassification at March 31, 2018 was a recognized impairment expense of $139,891. Impairment expense was recognized at March 31, 2019 of $474,357 as required by the Ceiling Test calculation.
 
Due to the volatility of commodity prices, should oil and natural gas prices decline in the future, it is possible that a further write-down could occur. Proved reserves are estimated quantities of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids, which geological and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty to be recoverable from known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions. The independent engineering estimates include only those amounts considered to be proved reserves and do not include additional amounts which may result from new discoveries in the future, or from application of secondary and tertiary recovery processes where facilities are not in place or for which transportation and/or marketing contracts are not in place. Estimated reserves to be developed through secondary or tertiary recovery processes are classified as unevaluated properties.
  
 
12
 
 
TORCHLIGHT ENERGY RESOURCES, INC
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED)
 
4. OIL & GAS PROPERTIES- continued
 
Current Projects
 
As of March 31, 2019, we had interests in four oil and gas projects: the Orogrande Project in Hudspeth County, Texas, the Hazel Project in Sterling, Tom Green, and Irion Counties, Texas, the Winkler Project in Winkler County, Texas and the Hunton wells in partnership with Husky Ventures in central Oklahoma.
 
Orogrande Project, West Texas
 
On August 7, 2014, we entered into a Purchase Agreement with Hudspeth Oil Corporation (“Hudspeth”), McCabe Petroleum Corporation (“MPC”), and Gregory McCabe, our Chairman. Mr. McCabe was the sole owner of both Hudspeth and MPC. Under the terms and conditions of the Purchase Agreement, at closing, we purchased 100% of the capital stock of Hudspeth which holds certain oil and gas assets, including a 100% working interest in approximately 172,000 mostly contiguous acres in the Orogrande Basin in West Texas. As of December 31, 2017, leases covering approximately 133,000 acres remain in effect. This acreage is in the primary term under five-year leases that carry additional five-year extension provisions. As consideration, at closing we issued 868,750 restricted shares of our common stock to Mr. McCabe and paid a total of $100,000 in geologic origination fees to third parties. Additionally, Mr. McCabe has, at his option, a 10% working interest back-in after payout and a reversionary interest if drilling obligations are not met, all under the terms and conditions of a participation and development agreement among Hudspeth, MPC and Mr. McCabe. Mr. McCabe also holds a 4.5% overriding royalty interest in the Orogrande acreage, which he obtained prior to, and was not a part of, the August 2014 transaction. We believe all drilling obligations through March 31, 2019 have been met.
 
On September 23, 2015, Hudspeth entered into a Farmout Agreement with Pandora Energy, LP (“Pandora”), Founders Oil & Gas, LLC (“Founders”), and for the limited purposes set forth therein, MPC and Mr. McCabe, for the entire Orogrande Project in Hudspeth County, Texas. The Farmout Agreement provided that Hudspeth and Pandora (collectively referred to as “Farmor”) would assign to Founders an undivided 50% of the leasehold interest and a 37.5% net revenue interest in the oil and gas leases and mineral interests in the Orogrande Project, which interests, except for any interests retained by Founders, would be reassigned to Farmor by Founders if Founders did not spend a minimum of $45.0 million on actual drilling operations on the Orogrande Project by September 23, 2017. Under a joint operating agreement also entered into on September 23, 2015, Founders was designated as operator of the leases.
 
On March 22, 2017, Founders, Founders Oil & Gas Operating, LLC, Founders’ operating partner, Hudspeth and Pandora signed a Drilling and Development Unit Agreement (the “DDU Agreement”), with the Commissioner of the General Land Office, on behalf of the State of Texas, and as approved by the Board for Lease of University Lands, or University Lands, on the Orogrande Project. The DDU Agreement has an effective date of January 1, 2017 and required a payment from Founders, Hudspeth and Pandora, collectively, of $335,323 as the initial consideration fee. The initial consideration fee was paid by Founders in April 2017 and was to be deducted from the required spud fee payable to us at commencement of the next well drilled.
 
The DDU Agreement allows for all 192 existing leases covering approximately 133,000 net acres leased from University Lands to be combined into one drilling and development unit for development purposes. The term of the DDU Agreement expires on December 31, 2023, and the time to drill on the drilling and development unit continues through December 2023. The DDU Agreement also grants the right to extend the DDU Agreement through December 2028 if compliance with the DDU Agreement is met and the extension fee associated with the additional time is paid. Our drilling obligations began with one well to be spudded and drilled on or before September 1, 2017, and increased to two wells in year 2018, three wells in year 2019, four wells in year 2020 and five wells per year in years 2021, 2022 and 2023. The drilling obligations are minimum yearly requirements and may be exceeded if acceleration is desired. The DDU Agreement replaces all prior agreements, and will govern future drilling obligations on the drilling and development unit if the DDU Agreement is extended. The Company drilled three wells during fourth quarter, 2018.
 
There are two vertical tests wells in the Orogrande Project, the Orogrande Rich A-11 test well and the University Founders B-19 #1 test well. The Orogrande Rich A-11 test well was spudded on March 31, 2015, drilled in the second quarter of 2015 and was evaluated and numerous scientific tests were performed to provide key data for the field development thesis. We believe that future utility of this well may be conversion to a salt water disposal well in the course of further development of the Orogrande acreage. The University Founders B-19 #1 was spudded on April 24, 2016 and drilled in the second quarter of 2016. The well successfully pumped down completion fluid in the third quarter of 2016 and indications of hydrocarbons were seen at the surface on this second Orogrande Project test well. We believe that future utility of this well may be conversion to a salt water disposal well in the course of further development of the Orogrande acreage.
 
 
13
 
 
TORCHLIGHT ENERGY RESOURCES, INC
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED)
 
4. OIL & GAS PROPERTIES- continued
 
During the fourth quarter of 2017, we took back operational control from Founders on the Orogrande Project. We were joined by Wolfbone Investments, LLC, (“Wolfbone”), a company owned by Mr. McCabe. We, along with Hudspeth, Wolfbone and, for the limited purposes set forth therein, Pandora, entered into an Assignment of Farmout Agreement with Founders, (the “Assignment of Farmout Agreement”), pursuant to which we and Wolfbone will share the remaining commitments under the Farmout Agreement. All original provisions of our carried interest were to remain in place including reimbursement to us on each wellbore. Founders was to remain a 9.5% working interest owner in the Orogrande Project for the $9.5 million it had spent as of the date of the Assignment of Farmout Agreement, and such interests were to be carried until $40.5 million is spent by Wolfbone and us, with each contributing 50% of such capital spend, under the existing agreement. Our working interest in the Orogrande Project thereby increased by 20.25% to a total of 67.75% and Wolfbone then owned 20.25%.
 
Founders was to operate a newly drilled horizontal well called the University Founders #A25 (at 5,540’ depth in a 1,000’ lateral) with supervision from us and our partners. The University Founders #A25 was spudded on November 28, 2017. During the month of April, 2018, we, MPC and Mr. McCabe were to assume full operational control including managing drilling plans and timing for all future wells drilled in the project.
 
On July 25, 2018, we and Hudspeth entered into a Settlement & Purchase Agreement (the “Settlement Agreement”) with Founders (and Founders Oil & Gas Operating, LLC), Wolfbone and MPC, which agreement provides for Hudspeth and Wolfbone to each immediately pay $625,000 and for Hudspeth or the Company and Wolfbone or MPC to each pay another $625,000 on July 20, 2019, as consideration for Founders assigning all of its working interest in the oil and gas leases of the Orogrande Project to Hudspeth and Wolfbone equally. The assignments to Hudspeth and Wolfbone were made in July when the first payments were made. The payments to Founders in 2019 are not securitized. Future well capital spending obligations will require the same 50% contribution from Hudspeth and 50% from Wolfbone until such time as the $40.5 million to be spent on the project (as per our Assignment of Farmout Agreement with Founders) is completed. The Company estimates that there is still approximately $16 million remaining to be spent on the project until such time as the capital expenditures revert back to the percentages of the working interest owners.
 
After the assignment by Founders (for which Hudspeth’s total consideration is $1,250,000), Hudspeth’s working interest increased to 72.5%. Additionally, the Settlement Agreement provides that the Founders parties will assign to the Company, Hudspeth, Wolfbone and MPC their claims against certain vendors for damages, if any, against such vendors for negligent services or defective equipment. Further, the Settlement Agreement has a mutual release and waivers among the parties.
 
Rich Masterson, our consulting geologist, is credited with originating the Orogrande Project in Hudspeth County in the Orogrande Basin. With Mr. Masterson’s assistance and based on all the science we have gathered to date, we have identified multiple unconventional and conventional target pay zones with  depths between 3,000’ and 8,000’ with primary pay, described as the Penn formation, located at depths of 5,300 to 5,900’. Based on our geologic analysis to date, this basin has stacked pay with zones including the Wolfcamp, Penn, Barnett, Woodford, Atoka and more.  These potential zones are prospective for oil and gas with a GOR of 1100 expected based on our gathered scientific information and analysis from independent third parties.
 
During the fourth quarter, 2018, the Company drilled three additional test wells in the Orogrande in order to stay in compliance with University Lands D&D Unit Agreement, as well as, to test for potential shallow pay zones and deeper pay zones that may be present on structural plays.  In addition, the Company is currently marketing the project for an outright sale or farm in partner.
 
Hazel Project in the Midland Basin in West Texas
 
Effective April 4, 2016, TEI acquired from MPC a 66.66% working interest in approximately 12,000 acres in the Midland Basin in exchange for 1,500,000 warrants to purchase shares of our common stock with an exercise price of $1.00 for five years and a back-in after payout of a 25% working interest to MPC.
 
Initial development of the first well on the property, the Flying B Ranch #1, began July 9, 2016 and development continued through September 30, 2016. This well is classified as a test well in the development pursuit of the Hazel Project. We believe that this wellbore will be utilized as a salt water disposal well in support of future development.
 
In October 2016, the holders of all of our then-outstanding shares of Series C Preferred Stock (which were issued in July 2016) elected to convert into a total 33.33% working interest in our Hazel Project, reducing our ownership from 66.66% to a 33.33% working interest. As of December 31, 2018, no shares of our Series C Preferred Stock were outstanding.
 
On December 27, 2016, drilling activities commenced on the second Hazel Project well, the Flying B Ranch #2. The well is a vertical test similar to our first Hazel Project well, the Flying B Ranch #1. Recompletion in an alternative geological formation for this well was performed during the three months ended September 30, 2017; however, we believe that the results were uneconomic for continuing production. We believe that this wellbore will be utilized as a salt water disposal well in support of future development.
 
We commenced planning to drill the Flying B Ranch #3 horizontal well in the Hazel Project in June 2017 in compliance with the continuous drilling obligation. The well was spudded on June 10, 2017. The well was completed and began production in late September 2017.
 
 
14
 
 
TORCHLIGHT ENERGY RESOURCES, INC
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED)
 
4. OIL & GAS PROPERTIES- continued
 
Acquisition of Additional Interests in Hazel Project
 
On January 30, 2017, we and our then wholly-owned subsidiary, Torchlight Acquisition Corporation, a Texas corporation (“TAC”), entered into and closed an Agreement and Plan of Reorganization and a Plan of Merger with Line Drive Energy, LLC, a Texas limited liability company (“Line Drive”), and Mr. McCabe, under which agreements TAC merged with and into Line Drive and the separate existence of TAC ceased, with Line Drive being the surviving entity and becoming our wholly-owned subsidiary. Line Drive, which was wholly-owned by Mr. McCabe, owned certain assets and securities, including approximately 40.66% of 12,000 gross acres, 9,600 net acres, in the Hazel Project and 521,739 warrants to purchase shares of our common stock (which warrants had been assigned by Mr. McCabe to Line Drive). Upon the closing of the merger, all of the issued and outstanding shares of common stock of TAC automatically converted into a membership interest in Line Drive, constituting all of the issued and outstanding membership interests in Line Drive immediately following the closing of the merger, the membership interest in Line Drive held by Mr. McCabe and outstanding immediately prior to the closing of the merger ceased to exist, and we issued Mr. McCabe 3,301,739 restricted shares of our common stock as consideration therefor. Immediately after closing, the 521,739 warrants held by Line Drive were cancelled, which warrants had an exercise price of $1.40 per share and an expiration date of June 9, 2020. A Certificate of Merger for the merger transaction was filed with the Secretary of State of Texas on January 31, 2017. Subsequent to the closing the name of Line Drive Energy, LLC was changed to Torchlight Hazel, LLC. We are required to drill one well every six months to hold the entire 12,000 acre block for eighteen months, and thereafter two wells every six months starting June 2018.
 
Also on January 30, 2017, TEI entered into and closed a Purchase and Sale Agreement with Wolfbone. Under the agreement, TEI acquired certain of Wolfbone’s Hazel Project assets, including its interest in the Flying B Ranch #1 well and the 40 acre unit surrounding the well, for consideration of $415,000, and additionally, Wolfbone caused to be cancelled a total of 2,780,000 warrants to purchase shares of our common stock, including 1,500,000 warrants held by MPC, and 1,280,000 warrants held by Green Hill Minerals, an entity owned by Mr. McCabe’s son, which warrant cancellations were effected through certain Warrant Cancellation Agreements. The 1,500,000 warrants held by MPC that were cancelled had an exercise price of $1.00 per share and an expiration date of April 4, 2021. The warrants held by Green Hill Minerals that were cancelled included 100,000 warrants with an exercise price of $1.73 and an expiration date of September 30, 2018 and 1,180,000 warrants with an exercise price of $0.70 and an expiration date of February 15, 2020.
 
Since Mr. McCabe held the controlling interest in both Line Drive and Wolfbone, the transactions were combined for accounting purposes. The working interest in the Hazel Project was the only asset held by Line Drive. The warrant cancellation was treated in the aggregate as an exercise of the warrants with the transfer of the working interests as the consideration. We recorded the transactions as an increase in its investment in the Hazel Project working interests of $3,644,431, which is equal to the exercise price of the warrants plus the cash paid to Wolfbone.
 
Upon the closing of the transactions, our working interest in the Hazel Project increased by 40.66% to a total ownership of 74%.
 
Effective June 1, 2017, we acquired an additional 6% working interest from unrelated working interest owners in exchange for 268,656 shares of common stock valued at $373,430, increasing our working interest in the Hazel project to 80%, and an overall net revenue interest of 74-75%.
 
Mr. Masterson is credited with originating the Hazel Project in the Midland Basin. With Mr. Masterson’s assistance, we are targeting prospects in the Midland Basin that have 150 to 130 feet of thickness, are likely to require six to eight laterals per bench, have the potential for twelve to sixteen horizontal wells per section, and 200 long lateral locations, assuming only two benches.
 
In April 2018, we announced that we have commenced a process that could result in the monetization of the Hazel Project. We believe the development activity at the Hazel Project, coupled with nearby activities of other oil and gas operators, suggests that this project has achieved a level of value worth monetizing. We anticipate that the liquidity that would be provided from selling the Hazel Project could be redeployed into the Orogrande Project. While this process is underway, we will take all necessary steps to maintain the leasehold as required. As of this filing, we continue to maintain the leases in good standing and continue to market the acreage in an effort to focus on the Orogrande Project.
 
Winkler Project, Winkler County, Texas
 
On December 1, 2017, the Agreement and Plan of Reorganization that we and our then wholly-owned subsidiary, Torchlight Wolfbone Properties, Inc., a Texas corporation (“TWP”), entered into with MPC and Warwink Properties, LLC (Warwink Properties) on November 14, 2017 closed. Under the agreement, TWP merged with and into Warwink Properties and the separate existence of TWP ceased, with Warwink Properties being the surviving entity and becoming our wholly-owned subsidiary. Warwink Properties was wholly owned by MPC. Warwink Properties owns certain assets, including a 10.71875% working interest in approximately 640 acres in Winkler County, Texas. Upon the closing of the merger, all of the issued and outstanding shares of common stock of TWP converted into a membership interest in Warwink Properties, constituting all of the issued and outstanding membership interests in Warwink Properties immediately following the closing of the merger, the membership interest in Warwink Properties held by MPC and outstanding immediately prior to the closing of the merger ceased to exist, and we issued MPC 2,500,000 restricted shares of our common stock as consideration. Also on December 1, 2017, MPC closed its transaction with MECO IV, LLC (” MECO”), for the purchase and sale of certain assets as contemplated by the Purchase and Sale Agreement dated November 9, 2017 among MPC, MECO and additional parties thereto (the “MECO PSA”), to which we are not a party. Under the MECO PSA, Warwink Properties received a carry from MECO (through the tanks) of up to $1,179,076 in the next well drilled on the Winkler County leases. A Certificate of Merger for the merger transaction was filed with the Secretary of State of Texas on December 5, 2017.
 
 
15
 
 
TORCHLIGHT ENERGY RESOURCES, INC
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED)
 
4. OIL & GAS PROPERTIES- continued
 
Also on December 1, 2017, the transactions contemplated by the Purchase Agreement that TEI entered into with MPC closed. Under the Purchase Agreement, which was entered into on November 14, 2017, TEI acquired beneficial ownership of certain of MPC’s assets, including acreage and wellbores located in Ward County, Texas (the “Ward County Assets”). As consideration under the Purchase Agreement, at closing TEI issued to MPC an unsecured promissory note in the principal amount of $3,250,000, payable in monthly installments of interest only beginning on January 1, 2018, at the rate of 5% per annum, with the entire principal amount together with all accrued interest due and payable on January 1, 2021. In connection with TEI’s acquisition of beneficial ownership in the Ward County Assets, MPC sold those same assets, on behalf of TEI, to MECO at closing of the MECO PSA, and accordingly, TEI received $3,250,000 in cash for its beneficial interest in the Ward County Assets. Additionally, at closing of the MECO PSA, MPC paid TEI a performance fee of $2,781,500 in cash as compensation for TEI’s marketing and selling the Winkler County assets of MPC and the Ward County Assets as a package to MECO. 
 
Addition to the Winkler Project
 
As of May 7, 2018 our Winkler project in the Delaware Basin had begun the drilling phase of the first Winkler Project well, the UL 21 War-Wink 47 #2H. Our operating partner, MECO had begun the pilot hole on the project. The plan is to evaluate the various potential zones for a lateral leg to be drilled once logging is completed. We expect the most likely target to be the Wolfcamp A interval. The well is on 320 newly acquired acres offsetting the original leasehold we entered into in December, 2017. The additional acreage was leased by our operating partner under the Area of Mutual Interest Agreement (AMI) and we exercised its right to participate for its 12.5% in the additional 1,080 gross acres at a cash cost of $447,847 in July, 2018. Our carried interest in the first well, as outlined in the agreement, was originally planned to be on the first acreage acquired. That carried interest is being applied to this new well and will allow MECO to drill and produce potential revenues sooner than originally planned. The primary leasehold is a 320-acre block directly west of the current position and will allow for 5,000-foot lateral wells to be drilled. The well was completed and began production in October, 2018.
 
Two additional wells are planned for development by MECO in 2019.
 
In December, 2018, the Company began to take measures on its own to market the Warwink Project in an effort to focus on the Orogrande.
 
 
5. RELATED PARTY PAYABLES
 
As of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, related party payables of $45,000 and accrued payroll of $861,176 and $816,176, respectively, consist of accrued and unpaid compensation due to our executive officers.

  
6. COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
 
Leases
 
The Company has a noncancelable lease for its office premises that expires on November 30, 2019 and which requires the payment of base lease amounts and executory costs such as taxes, maintenance and insurance.
 
Approximate future minimum rental commitments under the office premises lease total $64,440 through the expiration date.
 
Environmental matters
 
The Company is subject to contingencies as a result of environmental laws and regulations. Present and future environmental laws and regulations applicable to the Company’s operations could require substantial capital expenditures or could adversely affect its operations in other ways that cannot be predicted at this time. As of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, no amounts had been recorded because no specific liability has been identified that is reasonably probable of requiring the Company to fund any future material amounts.
 
 
7. STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
 
Common Stock
 
During the three months ended March 31, 2019, the Company issued 1,592,600 shares of common stock for cash of $1,274,080.
 
 
16
 
 
TORCHLIGHT ENERGY RESOURCES, INC
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED)
 
7. STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY - continued
  
During the three months ended March 31, 2019, the Company issued 92,593 shares of common stock with a fair value of $100,000 as compensation for services.
 
During the three months ended March 31, 2019, the Company issued 13,546 shares of common stock valued at $14,628 in payment of interest accrued on notes payable.
 
During the three months ended March 31, 2019, the Company issued 100,000 shares of common stock resulting from warrant exercise for consideration totaling $77,000.
 
Warrants and Options
 
During the three months ended March 31, 2019, the Company issued 200,000 warrants and options with total fair value of $154,000, as compensation for services and recorded expense of $143,250 related to warrants and options issued in prior periods.
 
In connection with the issuance of common stock for cash during the three months ended March 31, 2019, 1,592,600 warrants were surrendered to the Company for cancellation.
 
A summary of warrants outstanding as of March 31, 2019 by exercise price and year of expiration is presented below:
 
 
Exercise
 
 
Expiration Date in
 
 
 
 
 
Price
 
 
2019
 
 
2020
 
 
2021
 
 
2023
 
 
2024
 
 
Total
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 $0.70 
  - 
  420,000 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  420,000 
 $1.03 
  - 
  - 
  120,000 
  - 
  - 
  120,000 
 $1.14 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  600,000 
  - 
  600,000 
 $1.21 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  120,000 
  - 
  120,000 
 $1.40 
  - 
  321,737 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  321,737 
 $1.63 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  100,000 
  100,000 
 $1.64 
  - 
  - 
  200,000 
  - 
  - 
  200,000 
 $1.80 
  - 
  1,250,000 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  1,250,000 
 $2.00 
  - 
  - 
  200,000 
  - 
  - 
  200,000 
 $2.23 
  - 
  339,901 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  339,901 
 $2.50 
  35,211 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  35,211 
 $3.50 
  15,000 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  15,000 
 $4.50 
  700,000 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  700,000 
 $6.00 
  22,580 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  22,580 
 $7.00 
  700,000 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  700,000 
    
  1,472,791 
  2,331,638 
  520,000 
  720,000 
  100,000 
  5,144,429 
 
A summary of stock options outstanding as of March 31, 2019 by exercise price and year of expiration is presented below:
 
 
 Exercise
 
 
Expiration Date in
 
 
 
 
 
 Price
 
 
2019
 
 
2020
 
 
2021
 
 
2022
 
 
2023
 
 
Total
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 $0.97 
  - 
  - 
  259,742 
  - 
  - 
  259,742 
 $1.10 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  800,000 
  - 
  800,000 
 $1.19 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  700,000 
  700,000 
 $1.57 
  1,497,163 
  4,500,000 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  5,997,163 
 $1.63 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  58,026 
  - 
  58,026 
 $1.79 
  - 
  300,000 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  300,000 
    
  1,497,163 
  4,800,000 
  259,742 
  858,026 
  700,000 
  8,114,931 
 
At March 31, 2019, the Company had reserved 13,259,360 common shares for future exercise of warrants and options.
 
 
17
 
 
TORCHLIGHT ENERGY RESOURCES, INC
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED)
 
7. STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY - continued
 
Warrants and options granted were valued using the Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model. The assumptions used in calculating the fair value of the warrants and options issued were as follows:
 
2019
 
 
Risk-free interest rate
2.40% - 2.46%
Expected volatility of common stock
105% - 107%
Dividend yield
0.00%
Discount due to lack of marketability
20%
Expected life of option/warrant
Five Years
 
 
 
2018
 
 
Risk-free interest rate
2.15% - 2.30%
Expected volatility of common stock
114% - 119%
Dividend yield
0.00%
Discount due to lack of marketability
20%
Expected life of option/warrant
Three Years
 

8. INCOME TAXES
 
The Company recorded no income tax provision for 2019 and 2018 because of losses incurred.
 
The Company estimates its annual effective income tax rate in recording its quarterly provision for income taxes in the various jurisdictions in which it operates. Statutory tax rate changes and other significant or unusual items are recognized as discrete items in the quarter in which they occur. The Company recorded no income tax expense for the three months ended March 31, 2019 because the Company expects to incur a tax loss in the current year. Similarly, no income tax expense was recognized for the three months ended March 31, 2018.
 
The Company had a net deferred tax asset related to federal net operating loss carryforwards of $57,782,503 and $56,992,857 at March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively. The federal net operating loss carryforward will begin to expire in 2033. Realization of the deferred tax asset is dependent, in part, on generating sufficient taxable income prior to expiration of the loss carryforwards. The Company has placed a 100% valuation allowance against the net deferred tax asset because future realization of these assets is not assured.
 
 
9. PROMISSORY NOTES
 
On April 10, 2017, we sold to investors in a private transaction two 12% unsecured promissory notes with a total of $8,000,000 in principal amount. Interest only is due and payable on the notes each month at the rate of 12% per annum, with a balloon payment of the outstanding principal due and payable at maturity on April 10, 2020. The holders of the notes will also receive annual payments of common stock at the rate of 2.5% of principal amount outstanding, based on a volume-weighted average price. Both notes were sold at an original issue discount of 94.25% and accordingly, we received total proceeds of $7,540,000 from the investors. We used the proceeds for working capital and general corporate purposes, which includes, without limitation, drilling capital, lease acquisition capital and repayment of prior debt.
 
These 12% promissory notes allow for early redemption. The notes also contain certain covenants under which we have agreed that, except for financing arrangements with established commercial banking or financial institutions and other debts and liabilities incurred in the normal course of business, we will not issue any other notes or debt offerings which have a maturity date prior to the payment in full of the 12% notes, unless consented to by the holders.
 
 
18
 
 
TORCHLIGHT ENERGY RESOURCES, INC
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED)
 
9. PROMISSORY NOTES - continued
 
The effective interest rate is 16.15%.
 
On April 24, 2017, we used $2,509,500 of the proceeds from this financing to redeem and repay a portion of the outstanding 12% Series B Convertible Unsecured Promissory Notes. Separately, $1,000,000 of the principal amount of the Series B Notes plus accrued interest was converted into 1,007,890 shares of common stock and $64,297 was rolled into the new debt financing.
 
On February 6, 2018, we sold to an investor in a private transaction a 12% unsecured promissory note with a principal amount of $4,500,000. Interest only is due and payable on the note each month at the rate of 12% per annum, with a balloon payment of the outstanding principal due and payable at maturity on April 10, 2020. The holder of the note will also receive annual payments of common stock at the rate of 2.5% of principal amount outstanding, based on a volume-weighted average price. We sold the note at an original issue discount of 96.27% and accordingly, we received total proceeds of $4,332,150 from the investor. We used the proceeds for working capital and general corporate purposes, which includes, without limitation, drilling capital, lease acquisition capital and repayment of prior debt.
 
This 12% promissory note allows for early redemption, provided that if we redeem before February 6, 2019, we must pay the holder all unpaid interest and common stock payments on the portion of the note redeemed that would have been earned through February 6, 2019. The note also contains certain covenants under which we have agreed that, except for financing arrangements with established commercial banking or financial institutions and other debts and liabilities incurred in the normal course of business, we will not issue any other notes or debt offerings which have a maturity date prior to the payment in full of the 12% note, unless consented to by the holder.
 
The effective interest rate is 15.88%.
 
On April 12, 2018, the holders of the notes described above received 172,342 shares of common stock as a payment in kind representing the annual payments of common stock due at the rate of 2.5% of principal amount outstanding as of April 10, 2018 based on a volume-weighted average price calculation. 
 
Unsecured promissory note transactions through March 31, 2019 are summarized as follows:
 
Unsecured promissory note balance - December 31, 2018
 $11,862,080 
 
    
Accretion of discount and amortization of debt issuance costs
  128,938 
 
    
Unsecured promissory note balance - March 31, 2019
 $11,991,018 
 
On October 17, 2018, we sold to certain investors in a private transaction 16% Series C Unsecured Convertible Promissory Notes with a total principal amount of $6,000,000. Interest and principal are due and payable on the notes in one balloon payment at maturity on April 17, 2020. The notes are convertible, at the election of the holders, into an aggregate 6% working interest in certain oil and gas leases in Hudspeth County, Texas, known as our “Orogrande Project.” After an analysis of the transaction and a review of applicable accounting pronouncements, management concluded that the notes issued on October 17, 2018 which contain a conversion right for holders to convert into a working interest in the Orogrande Project of the Company, meet a specific scope exception to the provisions requiring derivative accounting.
  
 
19
 
 
TORCHLIGHT ENERGY RESOURCES, INC
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED)
 
9. PROMISSORY NOTES - continued

The notes allow us to redeem them early only upon the event of a fundamental transaction, such as a merger or sale of substantially all our assets. The notes provide that the noteholders may accelerate and declare any and all of the obligations under the notes to be immediately due and payable in the event of default, such as nonpayment, failure to perform required conversions, failure to perform any covenant or agreement under the notes, an insolvency event, or certain defaults or judgments. As part of the sale of the of the notes, the noteholders required that McCabe Petroleum Corporation, a Texas corporation owned by our Chairman Gregory McCabe (“MPC”), provide them a put option whereby they have the right to have MPC purchase from them any unpaid principal amount due on the notes. Additionally, if there is a fundamental transaction, Mr. McCabe will be required to pay a fee to each noteholder that elects not to convert or require MPC to purchase the principal amount under the note, which fee will be equal to such noteholder’s pro-rata share of a total fee amount of $1,500,000.
 
We received total proceeds of $6,000,000 from the sale of the notes, of which $3,000,000 was used to pay back the promissory note issued to MPC on December 1, 2017, which note was due on December 31, 2020. We used the remaining proceeds for working capital and general corporate purposes, which includes, without limitation, drilling and lease acquisition capital.
 
 
Prior to entering into the above transactions, our Board of Directors formed a special committee composed of independent directors to analyze and authorize the transactions on behalf of Torchlight Energy Resources, Inc. and determine whether the transactions are fair to the company. In this role, the special committee engaged an independent financial consulting firm which rendered a fairness opinion deeming that the transactions were fair to the company, from a financial point of view, and contained terms no less favorable to the company than those that could be obtained in arm’s length transactions.
 
In February and March, 2019 the Company raised a total of $2,000,000 from investors through the sale of 14% Series D Unsecured Convertible Promissory Notes. Principal is payable in a lump sum at maturity on May 11, 2020 with payments of interest payable monthly at the rate of 14% per annum. Holders of the notes have the right to convert principal and interest at any time into common stock at a conversion price of $1.08 per share. The Company has the right to redeem the notes at any time, provided that the redemption amount must include all interest that would have been earned through maturity. The Company evaluated the notes for beneficial conversion features and derivative accounting criteria and concluded that derivative accounting treatment is not applicable.
 
 
10. ASSET RETIREMENT OBLIGATIONS
 
The following is a reconciliation of the asset retirement obligation liability through March 31, 2019:
 
Asset retirement obligation – December 31, 2018
 $14,353 
 
    
Accretion expense
  142 
Estimated liabilities recorded
  6,325 
 
    
Asset retirement obligation – March 31, 2019
 $20,820 
 
 
11. SUBSEQUENT EVENTS
 
None
 
 
 
20
 
 
ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Overview
 
We are engaged in the acquisition, exploration, exploitation, and/or development of oil and natural gas properties in the United States.
 
During the year ended December 31, 2016 the Board of Directors initiated a review of Company operations in view of the divestiture of its Oklahoma properties, which included the previous sale of the Chisholm Trail and Cimarron properties. During 2016 development had continued on the Orogrande Project in West Texas, and in April, 2016 the Company acquired the Hazel Project in the Midland Basin also in West Texas. These West Texas properties demonstrate significant potential and future production capabilities based upon the analysis of scientific data being gathered in the day by day development activity. Therefore, the Board determined to focus its efforts and capital on these projects to maximize shareholder value for the long run. The strategy in divesting of projects was to refocus on the greatest potential future value for the Company while systematically eliminating debt as noncore assets are sold and operations are streamlined.
 
During 2017 the Company increased its commitment to the Orogrande and Hazel Projects. Additional working interests were acquired and test wells were drilled on the properties which is detailed in the Properties section of this filing. Near the end of 2017 the Warwink Project, also in West Texas, was acquired.
 
During 2018 the Company continued development in the Orogrande and Hazel Projects. Additional test wells were drilled to capture additional science data to support lease value. Production from the Hazel Flying B #3 continued through 2018. The carried well provision of the Warwink acquisition in 2017 was fulfilled with the drilling of the Warwink #47-H. That well began production in October, 2018.
 
Development continued in our Orogrande and Hazel Projects during the quarter ended March 31, 2019 resulting in additional gathering of scientific data to be available to potential acquirers.
 
During the quarter ended March 31, 2019, the Company continued its offering of the Hazel and Warwink Projects for sale and to offer its Orogrande Project for sale or farm in.
 
The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our unaudited financial statements included herewith and our audited financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2018. This discussion should not be construed to imply that the results discussed herein will necessarily continue into the future, or that any conclusion reached herein will necessarily be indicative of actual operating results in the future. Such discussion represents only the best present assessment by our management.
 
Historical Results for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018:
 
Revenues and Cost of Revenues
 
For the three months ended March 31, 2019, we had production revenue of $310,837 compared to $481,164 for the three months ended March 31, 2018. Refer to the table of production and revenue included below for quarterly changes in revenue. Our cost of revenue, consisting of lease operating expenses and production taxes, was $127,622 and $228,903 for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
 
 
 
21
 
 
ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS - continued
 
Property
 
Quarter
 
 
Oil Production {BBLS}
 
 
Gas Production {MCF}
 
 
 Oil Revenue
 
 
 Gas Revenue
 
 
 Total Revenue
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Oklahoma
    Q1 - 2019 
  56 
  1,072 
 $2,567 
 $2,333 
 $4,900 
Hazel (TX)
    Q1 - 2019 
  2,864 
  0 
  131,901 
  - 
  131,901 
MECO (TX)
    Q1 - 2019 
  3,525 
  2,565 
  167,677 
  6,359 
  174,036 
 
Total Q1-2019
 
  6,445 
  3,637 
 $302,145 
 $8,692 
 $310,837 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
Oklahoma
    Q1 - 2018 
  72 
  2,008 
 $4,463 
 $5,203 
 $9,666 
Hazel (TX)
    Q1 - 2018 
  7,786 
  0 
  471,498 
  - 
  471,498 
 
Total Q1-2018
 
  7,858 
  2,008 
 $475,961 
 $5,203 
 $481,164 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
Oklahoma
    Q2 - 2018 
  446 
  1,857 
 $10,912 
 $2,689 
 $13,601 
Hazel (TX)
    Q2 - 2018 
  4,368 
  0 
  266,506 
  - 
  266,506 
Meco (TX)
    Q2 - 2018 
  51 
  0 
  3,155 
  - 
  3,155 
 
Total Q2-2018
 
  4,865 
  1,857 
 $280,573 
 $2,689 
 $283,262 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
Oklahoma
    Q3 - 2018 
  41 
  2,324 
 $1,264 
 $3,845 
 $5,109 
Hazel (TX)
    Q3 - 2018 
  2,283 
  0 
  123,566 
  - 
  123,566 
Meco (TX)
    Q3 - 2018 
  0 
  0 
  - 
  - 
  - 
 
Total Q3-2018
 
  2,324 
  2,324 
 $124,830 
 $3,845 
 $128,675 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
Oklahoma
    Q4 - 2018 
  94 
  986 
 $4,878 
 $1,104 
 $5,982 
Hazel (TX)
    Q4 - 2018 
  3,779 
  0 
  178,015 
  - 
  178,015 
Meco (TX)
    Q4 - 2018 
  3,967 
  10,646 
  192,916 
  12,348 
  205,264 
 
Total Q4-2018
 
  7,840 
  11,632 
 $375,809 
 $13,452 
 $389,261 
 
       
    
    
    
    
    
 
2018 Year To Date
 
  22,887 
  17,821 
 $1,257,173 
 $25,189 
 $1,282,362 
 
We recorded depreciation, depletion, and amortization expense of $185,426 for the three months ended March 31, 2019 compared to $107,133 for the three months ended March 31, 2018.
 
General and Administrative Expenses
 
Our general and administrative expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018 were $1,042,758 and $1,675,840, respectively, a decrease of $633,082. Our general and administrative expenses consisted of consulting and compensation expense, substantially all of which was non-cash or deferred, accounting and administrative costs, professional consulting fees, and other general corporate expenses. The change in general and administrative expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2019 compared to 2018 is detailed as follows:
 
Increase(decrease) in non cash stock and warrant compensation
 $(324,665)
Increase(decrease) in consulting expense
 $(48,938)
Increase(decrease) in investor relations
 $(1,362)
Increase(decrease) in travel expense
 $7,911 
Increase(decrease) in salaries and compensation
 $(62,322)
Increase(decrease) in legal fees
 $(32,298)
Increase(decrease) in filing and compliance fees
 $(1,638)
Increase(decrease) in insurance
 $10,020 
Increase(decrease) in general corporate expenses
 $(158,088)
Increase(decrease) in audit fees
 $(21,702)
 
    
Total Decrease in General and Administrative Expenses
 $(633,082)
 
 
22
 
 
ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS - continued
  
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
At March 31, 2019, we had working capital deficit of $916,678 and total assets of $41,055,750. Stockholders’ equity was $18,107,860.
 
Cash flows from operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2019 was $(190,953) compared to $612,193 for the three months ended March 31, 2018, a decrease of $803,146. Cash flows from operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2019 can be primarily attributed to net loss from operations of $1,677,874, stock based compensation of $397,250, an impairment expense of $474,357, and a $299,965 decrease in accounts payable. Cash flows from operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2018 can be primarily attributed to net loss from operations of $1,774,544 and $736,545 in stock compensation expense and the increase in prepayment of development costs. Reference the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for additional detail of the components that comprise the net use of cash in operations. We expect to continue to use cash flow in operating activities until such time as we achieve sufficient commercial oil and gas production to cover all of our cash costs.
 
Cash flows from investing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2019 was $(2,404,783) compared to $(4,663,018) for the three months ended March 31, 2018. Cash flows from investing activities consists of investment in oil and gas properties in Texas.
 
Cash flows from financing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2019 was $3,351,080 as compared to $4,161,129 for the three months ended March 31, 2018. Cash flows from financing activities consists of proceeds from issuance of our common stock and additional borrowings under notes payable. We expect to continue to have cash flow provided by financing activities as we seek new rounds of financing and continue to develop our oil and gas investments.
 
We will require additional debt or equity financing to meet our plans and needs. We face obstacles in continuing to attract new financing due to industry conditions and our history and current record of net losses. Despite our efforts, we can provide no assurance that we will be able to obtain the financing required to meet our stated objectives or even to continue as a going concern.
 
We do not expect to pay cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future.
 
Commitments and Contingencies
 
Operating Leases
 
The Company has a non-cancelable lease for its office premises that expires on November 30, 2019 and which requires the payment of base lease amounts and executory costs such as taxes, maintenance and insurance
  
Approximate future minimum rental commitments under the office premises lease total $64,440 through the expiration date.
 
Environmental matters
 
We are subject to contingencies as a result of environmental laws and regulations. Present and future environmental laws and regulations applicable to our operations could require substantial capital expenditures or could adversely affect our operations in other ways that cannot be predicted at this time. As of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, no amounts have been recorded because no specific liability has been identified that is reasonably probable of requiring us to fund any future material amounts.
 
 
ITEM 3. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
 
Not Applicable 
 
 
ITEM 4. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
 
Disclosure Controls and Procedures
 
Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer (principal executive officer) and Chief Financial Officer (principal financial officer), we evaluated the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures, as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act, as of March 31, 2019. Based on this evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective to ensure that the information required to be disclosed by us in the reports we submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the applicable rules and forms and that such information was accumulated and communicated to our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, in a manner that allowed for timely decisions regarding disclosure.
 
 
23
 
 
ITEM 4. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES - continued 
 
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
 
There were no changes during the quarter ended March 31, 2019 that materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
 
 
PART II OTHER INFORMATION
  
ITEM 1. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
 
None
 
 
ITEM 2. UNREGISTERED SALES OF EQUITY SECURITIES AND USE OF PROCEEDS
 
In February and March 2019, the Company sold a total of 1,592,600 of shares of common stock through private placements at the purchase price of $0.80 per share for total consideration of $1,274,080.
 
In March 2019, the Company issued 92,593 shares of common stock as compensation for consulting services valued at $100,000.
 
In March 2019, the Company issued 13,546 shares of common stock valued at $14,628 in payment of interest accrued on notes payable.
 
In March 2019, the Company issued 100,000 shares of common stock for a warrant exercised at the price of $0.77 per share for total consideration of $77,000.
 
In March 2019, the Company issued 100,000 warrants for consulting services, which warrants have an exercise price of $1.63 per share and expire in March 2024.
 
In February 2019, the Company granted 100,000 stock options to Robert Lance Cook, a member of the Board of Directors. The stock options were granted under the 2015 Stock Option Plan and have an exercise price of $1.19 per share and an expiration date in August 2023.
 
All of the above sales of securities were sold under the exemption from registration provided by Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933 and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. The issuances of securities did not involve a “public offering” based upon the following factors: (i) the issuances of securities were isolated private transactions; (ii) a limited number of securities were issued to a limited number of purchasers; (iii) there were no public solicitations; (iv) the investment intent of the purchasers; and (v) the restriction on transferability of the securities issued.
 
 
ITEM 6. EXHIBITS
 
Exhibit No.
 
Description
 
2.1
 
Share Exchange Agreement dated November 23, 2010. (Incorporated by reference from Form 8-K filed with the SEC on November 24, 2010.) *
 
 
 
3.1
 
Articles of Incorporation. (Incorporated by reference from Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 18, 2019.)
 
 
 
3.2
 
Certificate of Amendment to Articles of Incorporation dated December 10, 2014. (Incorporated by reference from Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on May 15, 2015.) *
 
3.3
 
Certificate of Amendment to Articles of Incorporation dated September 15, 2015. (Incorporated by reference from Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on November 12, 2015.) *
 
 
 
3.4 
 
Certificate of Amendment to Articles of Incorporation dated August 18, 2017 (Incorporated by reference from Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on November 9, 2018.) *
 
 
 
3.5
 
Amended and Restated Bylaws (Incorporated by reference from Form 8-K filed with the SEC on October 26, 2016.) *
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
24
 
 
ITEM 6. EXHIBITS - continued
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10.9
 
Agreement and Plan of Reorganization and Plan of Merger with McCabe Petroleum Corporation and Warwink Properties, LLC(Incorporated by reference from Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 16, 2018) *
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
31.1
 
Certification of principal executive officer required by Rule 13a 14(1) or Rule 15d 14(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as adopted pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
 
 
 
31.2
 
Certification of principal financial officer required by Rule 13a 14(1) or Rule 15d 14(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as adopted pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
 
 
 
32.1
 
Certification of principal executive officer and principal financial officer pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and Section 1350 of 18 U.S.C. 63.
 
101.INS
 
XBRL Instance Document
101.SCH
 
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema
101.CAL
 
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase
101.DEF
 
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definitions Linkbase
101.LAB
 
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase
 
* Incorporated by reference from our previous filings with the SEC
 
 
25
 
 
SIGNATURES
 
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized.
 
 
 
Torchlight Energy Resources, Inc.
 
 
Date: May 10, 2019
/s/ John A. Brda
 
By: John A. Brda
 
Chief Executive Officer
 
 
 
 
 
Date: May 10, 2019
/s/ Roger Wurtele
 
By: Roger Wurtele
 
Chief Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
26