EXHIBIT 1.1
 
TORCHLIGHT ENERGY RESOURCES, INC.
 
UNDERWRITING AGREEMENT
 
January 14, 2020
 
Aegis Capital Corp.
810 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor
New York, NY 10019
As Representative of the          
      Several Underwriters Named on Schedule I hereto
 
Ladies and Gentlemen:
 
The undersigned, Torchlight Energy Resources, Inc., a company incorporated under the laws of Nevada (collectively with its subsidiaries and affiliates, including, without limitation, all entities disclosed or described in the Registration Statement as being subsidiaries or affiliates of Torchlight Energy Resources, Inc., the “Company”), hereby confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with the several underwriters (such underwriters, including the Representative, the “Underwriters” and each an “Underwriter”) named in Schedule I hereto for which Aegis Capital Corp. is acting as representative (the “Representative,” and if there are no Underwriters other than the Representative, references to multiple Underwriters shall be disregarded and the term Representative as used herein shall have the same meaning as Underwriter) on the terms and conditions set forth herein.  
 
It is understood that the several Underwriters are to make a public offering of the Public Shares as soon as the Representative deems it advisable to do so. The Public Shares are to be initially offered to the public at the initial public offering price set forth in the Prospectus Supplement.
 
It is further understood that you will act as the Representative for the Underwriters in the offering and sale of the Closing Shares and, if any, the Option Shares in accordance with this Agreement.
 
ARTICLE I.
DEFINITIONS
 
1.1           Definitions. In addition to the terms defined elsewhere in this Agreement, for all purposes of this Agreement, the following terms have the meanings set forth in this Section 1.1:
 
Action” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(k).
 
Affiliate” means with respect to any Person, any other Person that, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is controlled by or is under common control with such Person as such terms are used in and construed under Rule 405 under the Securities Act.
 
Board of Directors” means the board of directors of the Company.
 
Business Day” means any day except any Saturday, any Sunday, any day which is a federal legal holiday in the United States or any day on which banking institutions in the State of New York are authorized or required by law or other governmental action to close.
 
Closing” means the closing of the purchase and sale of the Closing Shares pursuant to Section 2.1 or the Option Shares pursuant to Section 2.2.
 
Closing Date” means, with respect to the Closing Shares, the second (or if the Closing Shares are priced, as contemplated by Rule 15c6-1(c) under the Exchange Act, after 4:30 p.m. Eastern time, the third) full Business Day following the date hereof, or at such other time and date as the Representative and the Company determine pursuant to Rule 15c6-1(a) under the Exchange Act.   
 
 
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Closing Purchase Price” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(b), which aggregate purchase price shall be net of the underwriting discounts and commissions.
 
Closing Shares” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(a).
 
Code” means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the regulations and published interpretations thereunder.
 
Commission” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.
 
Common Stock” means the common stock of the Company, par value $0.001 per share, and any other class of securities into which such securities may hereafter be reclassified or changed.
 
Common Stock Equivalents” means any securities of the Company or the Subsidiaries which would entitle the holder thereof to acquire at any time Common Stock, including, without limitation, any debt, preferred stock, right, option, warrant or other instrument that is at any time convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or otherwise entitles the holder thereof to receive, Common Stock.
 
Company Auditor” means Briggs & Veselka Co., with offices located at 9 Greenway Plaza, #1700, Houston, Texas 77046.
 
Company Counsel” means Axelrod & Smith, with offices located at 5300 Memorial Drive, Suite 1000, Houston, Texas 77007.
 
Effective Date” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(f).
 
Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
 
Execution Date” shall mean the date on which the parties execute and enter into this Agreement.
  
FCPA” means the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended.
 
FINRA” means the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority.
 
GAAP” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(i).
 
Indebtedness” means (a) any liabilities for borrowed money or amounts owed in excess of $50,000 (other than trade accounts payable incurred in the ordinary course of business), (b) all guaranties, endorsements and other contingent obligations in respect of indebtedness of others, whether or not the same are or should be reflected in the Company’s consolidated balance sheet (or the notes thereto), except guaranties by endorsement of negotiable instruments for deposit or collection or similar transactions in the ordinary course of business; and (c) the present value of any lease payments in excess of $50,000 due under leases required to be capitalized in accordance with GAAP.
 
Liens” means a lien, charge, pledge, security interest, encumbrance, right of first refusal, preemptive right or other restriction.
 
Lock-Up Agreements” means the lock-up agreements that are delivered on the date hereof by each of the Company’s officers and directors, in the form of Exhibit A attached hereto.
 
Material Adverse Effect” means (i) a material adverse effect on the legality, validity or enforceability of any Transaction Document, (ii) a material adverse effect on the results of operations, assets, business, prospects or condition (financial or otherwise) of the Company and the Subsidiaries, taken as a whole or (iii) a material adverse effect on the Company’s ability to perform in any material respect on a timely basis its obligations under any Transaction Document.
 
 
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NMRS” means Nelson Mullins Riley & Scarborough LLP, with offices located at 101 Constitution Avenue NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC 20001.
 
Offering” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(c).
 
Option” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.2(a).
 
Option Closing Date” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.2(c).
 
Option Closing Purchase Price” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.2(b), which aggregate purchase price shall be net of the underwriting discounts and commissions.
 
Option Shares” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.2(a).
 
Permitted Free Writing Prospectus” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4.2(d).
 
Person” means an individual or corporation, partnership, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, limited liability company, joint stock company, government (or an agency or subdivision thereof) or other entity of any kind.
   
Preliminary Prospectus Supplement” means, if any, any preliminary prospectus relating to the Public Shares included in the Registration Statement or filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b).
 
Proceeding” means an action, claim, suit, investigation or proceeding (including, without limitation, an informal investigation or partial proceeding, such as a deposition), whether commenced or threatened.
 
Prospectus” means the base prospectus, dated September 28, 2017, which is a part of the Registration Statement.
 
Prospectus Supplement” means the final prospectus supplement to the Prospectus to be used in connection with the Offering filed or to be filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act.
 
Public Shares” means, collectively, the Closing Shares and, if any, the Option Shares.
 
Registration Statement” means, collectively, the various parts of the registration statement prepared by the Company on Form S-3 (File No. 333-220181) with respect to the Public Shares, each as amended as of the date hereof, including the Prospectus and the Prospectus Supplement, if any, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement, if any, and all exhibits filed with or incorporated by reference into such registration statement.
 
Required Approvals” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(e).
 
Rule 424” means Rule 424 promulgated by the Commission pursuant to the Securities Act, as such Rule may be amended or interpreted from time to time, or any similar rule or regulation hereafter adopted by the Commission having substantially the same purpose and effect as such Rule.
 
SEC Reports” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(i).
 
Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
 
Share Purchase Price” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(b).
  
 
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Subsidiary” means any subsidiary of the Company and shall, where applicable, also include any direct or indirect subsidiary of the Company formed or acquired after the date hereof.
 
Trading Day” means a day on which the principal Trading Market is open for trading.
 
Trading Market” means any of the following markets or exchanges on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted for trading on the date in question: the NYSE American, the Nasdaq Capital Market, the Nasdaq Global Market, the Nasdaq Global Select Market or the New York Stock Exchange (or any successors to any of the foregoing).
 
Transaction Documents” means this Agreement, the Lock-Up Agreements, and any other documents or agreements executed in connection with the transactions contemplated hereunder.
 
Transfer Agent” means American Stock Transfer & Trust Company , LLC, the current transfer agent of the Company, with a mailing address of 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11219, and any successor transfer agent of the Company.
  
ARTICLE II.
PURCHASE AND SALE
 
2.1           Closing.
 
(a)          Upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, the Company agrees to sell in the aggregate 3,285,715 shares of Common Stock, and each Underwriter agrees to purchase, severally and not jointly, at the Closing, the number of shares of Common Stock (the “Closing Shares”) set forth opposite the name of such Underwriter on Schedule I hereof; and
 
(b)          The aggregate purchase price for the Closing Shares shall equal the sum of the amounts set forth opposite the name of each Underwriter on Schedule I hereto (the “Closing Purchase Price”). The price for one Closing Share shall be $0.644 (the “Share Purchase Price”); and
 
(c)           At the Closing, the Representative shall deliver or cause to be delivered to the Company, via wire transfer, immediately available funds equal to the Closing Purchase Price, against delivery of the certificates for the Closing Shares to the Representative through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company for the respective accounts of the Underwriters, and the Company shall deliver the other items required pursuant to Section 2.3 deliverable at the Closing. Upon satisfaction of the covenants and conditions set forth in Sections 2.3 and 2.4, the Closing shall occur at the offices of NMRS or such other location as the Company and Representative shall mutually agree. The Public Shares are to be offered initially to the public at the offering price set forth on the cover page of the Prospectus Supplement (the “Offering”).
 
2.2           Option to Purchase Additional Shares.
 
(a)          The Representative is hereby granted an option (the “Option”) to purchase, in the aggregate, up to 492,857 shares of Common Stock (the “Option Shares”) which may be purchased at the Share Purchase Price, solely for the purpose of covering over-allotments, if any.
 
(b)          In connection with an exercise of the Option, the purchase price to be paid for the Option Shares shall be equal to the product of the Share Purchase Price multiplied by the number of Option Shares to be purchased (the aggregate purchase price to be paid on an Option Closing Date, the “Option Closing Purchase Price”).
 
 
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(c)          The Option granted pursuant to this Section 2.2 may be exercised by the Representative as to all (at any time) or any part (from time to time) of the Option Shares within 45 days after the Execution Date. An Underwriter will not be under any obligation to purchase any Option Shares prior to the exercise of the Option by the Representative. The Option granted hereby may be exercised by the giving of oral notice to the Company from the Representative, which must be confirmed in writing by overnight mail or facsimile or other electronic transmission setting forth the number of Option Shares to be purchased and the date and time for delivery of and payment for the Option Shares (each, an “Option Closing Date”), which will not be later than two (2) full Trading Days after the date of the notice or such other time as shall be agreed upon by the Company and the Representative, at the offices of NMRS or at such other place (including remotely by facsimile or other electronic transmission) as shall be agreed upon by the Company and the Representative. Upon exercise of the Option, the Company will become obligated to convey to the Underwriters, and, subject to the terms and conditions set forth herein, the Underwriters will become obligated to purchase, the number of Option Shares specified in such notice. The Representative may cancel the Option at any time prior to the expiration of the Option by written notice to the Company.
 
2.3           Deliveries. The Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to the Representative the following:
 
(i)          At the Closing Date, the Closing Shares and, as to each Option Closing Date, if any, the applicable Option Shares, which shares shall be delivered via The Depository Trust Company Deposit or Withdrawal at Custodian system for the accounts of the several Underwriters;
 
(ii)         At the Closing Date, a legal opinion of Company Counsel addressed to the Underwriters, including a negative assurance statement, in each case, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Representative and as to each Option Closing Date, if any, a bring-down legal opinion of Company Counsel addressed to the Underwriters, and a negative assurance letter, in each case, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Representative;
 
(iii)         Contemporaneously herewith, a cold comfort letter, addressed to the Underwriters and in form and substance reasonably satisfactory in all respects to the Representative from the Company Auditor dated, respectively, as of the date of this Agreement and a bring-down letter dated as of the Closing Date and each Option Closing Date, if any;
 
(iv)        On the Closing Date and on each Option Closing Date, the duly executed and delivered Officer’s Certificate, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory in all respects to the Representative;
 
(v)         On the Closing Date and on each Option Closing Date, the duly executed and delivered Secretary’s Certificate, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory in all respects to the Representative; and
 
(vi)        Contemporaneously herewith, the duly executed and delivered Lock-Up Agreements.
 
2.4           Closing Conditions. The respective obligations of each Underwriter hereunder in connection with the Closing and each Option Closing Date are subject to the following conditions being met, unless waived by the Representative:
 
(i)          the accuracy in all material respects when made and on the date in question (other than representations and warranties of the Company already qualified by materiality, which shall be true and correct in all respects) of the representations and warranties of the Company contained herein (unless as of a specific date therein);
 
(ii)         all obligations, covenants and agreements of the Company required to be performed at or prior to the date in question shall have been performed;
  
(iii)        the delivery by the Company of the items set forth in Section 2.3 of this Agreement;
 
(iv)        the Registration Statement shall be effective on the date of this Agreement and at each of the Closing Date and each Option Closing Date, if any, no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement shall have been issued and no proceedings for that purpose shall have been instituted or shall be pending or contemplated by the Commission and any request on the part of the Commission for additional information shall have been complied with to the reasonable satisfaction of the Representative;
 
(v)         by the Execution Date, if required by FINRA, the Underwriters shall have received a “no-objection” letter from FINRA as to the amount of compensation payable to the Underwriters as described in the Registration Statement;
 
 
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(vi)          the Closing Shares and the Option Shares have been approved for listing on the Trading Market;
 
(vii)           on each Closing Date, the Reserve Engineer (as defined below) shall have furnished to the Underwriter, letters, dated the respective dates of delivery thereof and addressed to the Underwriter, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Underwriter, containing statements and information of the type customarily included in reserve engineers’ “confirmation letters” to underwriters with respect to the reserve reports, estimates of proved reserves and other reserve information included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; and
 
(viii)         prior to and on the Closing Date and each Option Closing Date, if any: (i) except as set forth in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement and the Prospectus Supplement, there shall have been no material adverse change in the condition or the business activities, financial or otherwise, of the Company; (ii) no action, suit or proceeding, at law or in equity, shall be pending or threatened against the Company or any Affiliate of the Company before or by any court or federal or state commission, board or other administrative agency wherein an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding may materially adversely affect the business, operations, prospects or financial condition of the Company, except as set forth in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement and the Prospectus Supplement; (iii) no stop order shall have been issued under the Securities Act and no proceedings therefor shall have been initiated or threatened by the Commission; and (iv) the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement and the Prospectus Supplement shall contain all material statements which are required to be stated therein in accordance with the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder and shall conform in all material respects to the requirements of the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, and none of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus Supplement shall contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.
   
ARTICLE III.
REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES
 
3.1           Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to the Underwriters as of the Execution Date, as of the Closing Date and as of each Option Closing Date, if any, as follows:
 
(a)          Subsidiaries. All of the direct and indirect Subsidiaries of the Company are set forth in the SEC Reports. Except as otherwise set forth in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement and the Prospectus Supplement, the Company owns, directly or indirectly, all of the capital stock or other equity interests of each Subsidiary free and clear of any Liens, and all of the issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of each Subsidiary are validly issued and are fully paid, non-assessable and free of preemptive and similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities. If the Company has no Subsidiaries, all other references to the Subsidiaries or any of them in the Transaction Documents shall be disregarded.
 
(b)          Organization and Qualification. The Company and each of the Subsidiaries is an entity organized, validly existing and in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its organization, with the requisite power and authority to own and use its properties and assets and to carry on its business as currently conducted. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary is in violation or default of any of the provisions of its respective organizational documents. Each of the Company and the Subsidiaries is duly qualified to conduct business and is in good standing as a foreign entity in each jurisdiction in which the nature of the business conducted or property owned by it makes such qualification necessary, except where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing, as the case may be, could not have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect and no Proceeding has been instituted in any such jurisdiction revoking, limiting or curtailing or seeking to revoke, limit or curtail such power and authority or qualification.
 
 
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(c)          Authorization; Enforcement. The Company has the requisite corporate power and authority to enter into and to consummate the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and each of the other Transaction Documents to which it is a party and otherwise to carry out its obligations hereunder and thereunder. The execution and delivery of this Agreement and each of the other Transaction Documents by the Company and the consummation by it of the transactions contemplated hereby and thereby have been duly authorized by all necessary corporate action on the part of the Company and no further corporate action is required by the Company, the Board of Directors or the Company’s shareholders in connection herewith or therewith other than in connection with the Required Approvals. This Agreement and each other Transaction Document to which the Company is a party has been (or upon delivery will have been) duly executed by the Company and, assuming they have been duly and properly executed by the other parties thereto, when delivered in accordance with the terms hereof and thereof, will constitute the valid and binding obligation of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with its terms, except (i) as limited by general equitable principles and applicable bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium and other laws of general application affecting enforcement of creditors’ rights generally, (ii) as limited by laws relating to the availability of specific performance, injunctive relief or other equitable remedies and (iii) insofar as indemnification and contribution provisions may be limited by applicable law.
  
(d)          No Conflicts. The execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement and the other Transaction Documents to which it is a party, the issuance and sale of the Public Shares and the consummation by it of the transactions contemplated hereby and thereby do not and will not (i) conflict with or violate any provision of the Company’s or any Subsidiary’s certificate or articles of incorporation, bylaws or other organizational or charter documents, or (ii) conflict with, or constitute a default (or an event that with notice or lapse of time or both would become a default) under, result in the creation of any Lien upon any of the properties or assets of the Company or any Subsidiary, or give to others any rights of termination, amendment, anti-dilution or similar adjustments, acceleration or cancellation (with or without notice, lapse of time or both) of, any agreement, credit facility, debt or other instrument (evidencing a Company or Subsidiary debt or otherwise) or other understanding to which the Company or any Subsidiary is a party or by which any property or asset of the Company or any Subsidiary is bound or affected, or (iii) subject to the Required Approvals, conflict with or result in a violation of any law, rule, regulation, order, judgment, injunction, decree or other restriction of any court or governmental authority to which the Company or a Subsidiary is subject (including federal and state securities laws and regulations), or by which any property or asset of the Company or a Subsidiary is bound or affected; except in the case of each of clauses (ii) and (iii), such as could not have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.
 
(e)          Filings, Consents and Approvals. The Company is not required to obtain any consent, waiver, authorization or order of, give any notice to, or make any filing or registration with, any court or other federal, state, local or other governmental authority or other Person in connection with the execution, delivery and performance by the Company of the Transaction Documents, other than: (i) the filing with the Commission of the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement and the Prospectus Supplement, (ii) such consents, approvals, authorizations, orders and registrations or qualifications as may be required by FINRA and the Trading Market, and (iii) such filings as are required to be made under applicable state securities laws (collectively, the “Required Approvals”).
   
 
 
 
 
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(f)          Registration Statement. The Company has filed with the Commission the Registration Statement under the Securities Act, which became effective on September 28, 2017 (the “Effective Date”), for the registration under the Securities Act of the Public Shares. At the time of such filing, the Company met the requirements of Form S-3 under the Securities Act. The Registration Statement meets the requirements set forth in Rule 415(a)(1)(x) under the Securities Act and complies with said Rule and the Prospectus Supplement will meet the requirements set forth in Rule 424(b). The Company has advised the Representative of all further information (financial and otherwise) with respect to the Company required to be set forth in the Registration Statement and Prospectus Supplement. Any reference in this Agreement to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus Supplement shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein pursuant to Item 12 of Form S-3 which were filed under the Exchange Act, on or before the date of this Agreement, or the issue date of the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus Supplement, as the case may be; and any reference in this Agreement to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus Supplement shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing of any document under the Exchange Act after the date of this Agreement, or the issue date of the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus Supplement, as the case may be, deemed to be incorporated therein by reference. All references in this Agreement to financial statements and schedules and other information which is “contained,” “included,” “described,” “referenced,” “set forth” or “stated” in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus Supplement (and all other references of like import) shall be deemed to mean and include all such financial statements and schedules and other information which is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus Supplement, as the case may be. No stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the use of the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus Supplement has been issued, and no proceeding for any such purpose is pending or has been initiated or, to the Company’s knowledge, is threatened by the Commission. For purposes of this Agreement, “free writing prospectus” has the meaning set forth in Rule 405 under the Securities Act. The Company will not, without the prior consent of the Representative, prepare, use or refer to, any free writing prospectus.
 
(g)          Issuance of Public Shares. The Public Shares are duly authorized and, when issued and paid for in accordance with the applicable Transaction Documents, will be duly and validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, free and clear of all Liens imposed by the Company. The Public Shares conform in all material respects to all statements with respect thereto contained in the Registration Statement.
  
(h)          Capitalization. The capitalization of the Company at September 30, 2019 is as set forth in the SEC Reports. Except as referenced in the SEC Reports, since September 30, 2019 the Company has issued no shares of common stock other than the issuance by the Company of 600,000 shares of common stock on January 6, 2020 to an individual investor for a total purchase price of $360,000, in a private offering, along with the issuance to that investor a five-year warrant to purchase 600,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $0.80 per share. Since September 30, 2019 through the date hereof, the Company has issued and sold no shares of Common Stock pursuant to the conversion and/or exercise of Common Stock Equivalents outstanding as of the date of the most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act or as set forth in any Current Report on Form 8-K. No Person has any right of first refusal, preemptive right, right of participation, or any similar right to participate in the transactions contemplated by the Transaction Documents. Except (i) as set forth in the SEC Reports, (ii) 600,000 stock options issued by the Company to certain directors pursuant to the Company’s existing stock option plan and (iii) the warrants issued by the Company to an investor in connection with the January 6, 2020 private placement transaction referenced above, there are no outstanding options, warrants, scrip rights to subscribe to, calls or commitments of any character whatsoever relating to, or securities, rights or obligations convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or giving any Person any right to subscribe for or acquire, any shares of Common Stock, or contracts, commitments, understandings or arrangements by which the Company or any Subsidiary is or may become bound to issue additional shares of Common Stock or Common Stock Equivalents. The issuance and sale of the Public Shares will not obligate the Company to issue shares of Common Stock or other securities to any Person (other than the Underwriters). Except as set forth in the SEC Reports, there are no outstanding securities or instruments of the Company or any Subsidiary with any provision that adjusts the exercise, conversion, exchange or reset price of such security or instrument upon an issuance of securities by the Company or any Subsidiary. All of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company are duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, have been issued in compliance with all federal and state securities laws, and none of such outstanding shares was issued in violation of any preemptive rights or similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities. The authorized shares of the Company conform in all material respects to all statements relating thereto contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. The offers and sales of the Company’s securities were at all relevant times either registered under the Securities Act and the applicable state securities or Blue Sky laws or, based in part on the representations and warranties of the purchasers, exempt from such registration requirements. Except for the Required Approvals, no further approval or authorization of any stockholder, the Board of Directors or others is required for the issuance and sale of the Public Shares. Except as set forth in the SEC Reports, there are no stockholders agreements, voting agreements or other similar agreements with respect to the Company’s capital stock to which the Company is a party or, to the knowledge of the Company, between or among any of the Company’s stockholders.
 
 
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(i)          SEC Reports; Financial Statements. The Company has filed all reports, schedules, forms, statements and other documents required to be filed by the Company under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, including pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) thereof, for the two years preceding the date hereof (or such shorter period as the Company was required by law or regulation to file such material) (the foregoing materials, including the exhibits thereto and documents incorporated by reference therein, together with the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement and the Prospectus Supplement, being collectively referred to herein as the “SEC Reports”) on a timely basis or has received a valid extension of such time of filing and has filed any such SEC Reports prior to the expiration of any such extension. As of their respective dates, the SEC Reports complied in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, as applicable, and none of the SEC Reports, when filed, contained any untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The Company has not been an issuer subject to Rule 144(i) under the Securities Act in the past 12 months. The financial statements of the Company included in the SEC Reports comply in all material respects with applicable accounting requirements and the rules and regulations of the Commission with respect thereto as in effect at the time of filing. Such financial statements have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), applied on a consistent basis during the periods involved, except as may be otherwise specified in such financial statements or the notes thereto and except that unaudited financial statements may not contain all footnotes required by GAAP, and fairly present in all material respects the financial position of the Company and its consolidated Subsidiaries as of and for the dates thereof and the results of operations and cash flows for the periods then ended, subject, in the case of unaudited statements, to normal, immaterial, year-end audit adjustments. The agreements and documents described in the Registration Statement and the SEC Reports conform in all material respects to the descriptions thereof contained therein and there are no agreements or other documents required by the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder to be described in the Registration Statement or the SEC Reports or to be filed with the Commission as exhibits to the Registration Statement, that have not been so described or filed. Each agreement or other instrument (however characterized or described) to which the Company is a party or by which it is or may be bound or affected and (i) that is referred to in the Registration Statement or the SEC Reports, or (ii) is material to the Company’s business, has been duly authorized and validly executed by the Company, is in full force and effect in all material respects and is enforceable against the Company and, to the Company’s knowledge, the other parties thereto, in accordance with its terms, except (x) as such enforceability may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally, (y) as enforceability of any indemnification or contribution provision may be limited under the federal and state securities laws, and (z) that the remedy of specific performance and injunctive and other forms of equitable relief may be subject to the equitable defenses and to the discretion of the court before which any proceeding therefore may be brought. None of such agreements or instruments has been assigned by the Company, and neither the Company nor, to the best of the Company’s knowledge, any other party is in default thereunder and, to the best of the Company’s knowledge, no event has occurred that, with the lapse of time or the giving of notice, or both, would constitute a default thereunder. To the best of the Company’s knowledge, performance by the Company of the material provisions of such agreements or instruments will not result in a violation of any existing applicable law, rule, regulation, judgment, order or decree of any governmental agency or court, domestic or foreign, having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its assets or businesses, including, without limitation, those relating to environmental laws and regulations, except for such violations that would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.
 
 
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(j)          Material Changes; Undisclosed Events, Liabilities or Developments. Since the date of the latest audited financial statements included within the SEC Reports, except as specifically disclosed in the Registration Statement or a subsequent SEC Report filed prior to the date hereof, (i) there has been no event, occurrence or development that has had or that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, (ii) the Company has not incurred any liabilities (contingent or otherwise) other than (A) trade payables and accrued expenses incurred in the ordinary course of business consistent with past practice and (B) liabilities not required to be reflected in the Company’s financial statements pursuant to GAAP or disclosed in filings made with the Commission, (iii) the Company has not altered its method of accounting, (iv) the Company has not declared or made any dividend or distribution of cash or other property to its stockholders or purchased, redeemed or made any agreements to purchase or redeem any shares of its capital stock, (v) the Company has not issued any equity securities to any officer, director or Affiliate, except pursuant to existing Company stock option plans or as set forth in a Current Report on Form 8-K and (vi) no officer or director of the Company has resigned from any position with the Company. The Company does not have pending before the Commission any request for confidential treatment of information. Except for the issuance of the Public Shares contemplated by this Agreement, no event, liability, fact, circumstance, occurrence or development has occurred or exists or is reasonably expected to occur or exist with respect to the Company or its Subsidiaries or their respective businesses, prospects, properties, operations, assets or financial condition that would be required to be disclosed by the Company under applicable securities laws at the time this representation is made or deemed made that has not been publicly disclosed at least one (1) Trading Day prior to the date that this representation is made.
  
(k)          Litigation. There is no action, suit, inquiry, notice of violation, proceeding or investigation pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened against or affecting the Company, any Subsidiary or any of their respective properties before or by any court, arbitrator, governmental or administrative agency or regulatory authority (federal, state, county, local or foreign) (collectively, an “Action”) which (i) adversely affects or challenges the legality, validity or enforceability of any of the Transaction Documents or the Public Shares or (ii) could, if there were an unfavorable decision, have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. Except as set forth in the SEC Reports, neither the Company nor any Subsidiary, nor any director or officer thereof, is or has been the subject of any Action involving a claim of violation of or liability under federal or state securities laws or a claim of breach of fiduciary duty. There has not been, and to the knowledge of the Company, there is not pending or contemplated, any investigation by the Commission involving the Company or, to the Company’s knowledge, any current or former director or officer of the Company.
 
(l)          Labor Relations. No labor dispute exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is imminent with respect to any of the employees of the Company, which could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. None of the Company’s or its Subsidiaries’ employees is a member of a union that relates to such employee’s relationship with the Company or such Subsidiary, and neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries is a party to a collective bargaining agreement, and the Company and its Subsidiaries believe that their relationships with their employees are good. To the knowledge of the Company, no executive officer of the Company or any Subsidiary, is, or is now expected to be, in violation of any material term of any employment contract, confidentiality, disclosure or proprietary information agreement or non-competition agreement, or any other contract or agreement or any restrictive covenant in favor of any third party, and the continued employment of each such executive officer does not subject the Company or any of its Subsidiaries to any liability with respect to any of the foregoing matters. The Company and its Subsidiaries are in compliance with all applicable U.S. federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations relating to employment and employment practices, terms and conditions of employment and wages and hours, except where the failure to be in compliance could not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.
 
(m)          Compliance. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary: (i) is in default under or in violation of (and no event has occurred that has not been waived that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would result in a default by the Company or any Subsidiary under), nor has the Company or any Subsidiary received notice of a claim that it is in default under or that it is in violation of, any indenture, loan or credit agreement or any other agreement or instrument to which it is a party or by which it or any of its properties is bound (whether or not such default or violation has been waived), (ii) is in violation of any judgment, decree or order of any court, arbitrator or other governmental authority or (iii) is or has been in violation of any statute, rule, ordinance or regulation of any governmental authority, including without limitation all foreign, federal, state and local laws relating to taxes, environmental protection, occupational health and safety, product quality and safety and employment and labor matters, except in each case as could not have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.
 
 
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(n)          Environmental Laws.  Except as would not, singly or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect, (A) neither the Company nor any of the Subsidiaries is in violation of any federal, state, local or foreign statute, law, rule, regulation, ordinance, code, policy or rule of common law or any judicial or administrative interpretation thereof, including any judicial or administrative order, consent, decree or judgment, relating to pollution or protection of human health, the environment (including, without limitation, ambient air, surface water, groundwater, land surface or subsurface strata) or wildlife, including, without limitation, laws and regulations relating to the release or threatened release of chemicals, pollutants, contaminants, wastes, toxic substances, hazardous substances, petroleum or petroleum products, asbestos-containing materials, mold or any hazardous materials as defined by or regulated under any Environmental Laws, as defined below (collectively, “Hazardous Materials”) or to the manufacture, processing, distribution, use, treatment, storage, disposal, transport or handling of Hazardous Materials (collectively, “Environmental Laws”), (B) the Company and the Subsidiaries have all permits, authorizations and approvals required under any applicable Environmental Laws and are each in compliance with their requirements, and (C) there are no pending or known threatened administrative, regulatory or judicial actions, suits, demands, demand letters, claims, liens, notices of noncompliance or violation, investigation or proceedings relating to any Environmental Law against the Company or any of the Subsidiaries.
  
(o)          Regulatory Permits. The Company and the Subsidiaries possess all certificates, authorizations and permits issued by the appropriate federal, state, local or foreign regulatory authorities necessary to conduct their respective businesses as described in the SEC Reports, except where the failure to possess such permits could not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect (each, a “Material Permit”), and neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of any Material Permit. The disclosures in the Registration Statement concerning the effects of Federal, State, local and all foreign regulation on the Company’s business as currently contemplated are correct in all material respects.
 
(p)          Title to Personal Property. Each of the Company and the Subsidiaries have good and marketable title to all of its assets and personal property owned by it, free and clear of all liens, encumbrances and defects, except such as are described in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement and the Prospectus Supplement or such as do not materially affect the value of such property and do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and the Subsidiaries; and all assets and personal property held under lease by the Company and the Subsidiaries are held by it under valid, subsisting and enforceable leases, with such exceptions as do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such assets by the Company and the Subsidiaries and the Company does not have notice of any material claim of any sort that has been asserted by anyone adverse to the rights of the Company and the Subsidiaries under any such leases or affecting or questioning the rights of the Company and the Subsidiaries to be in the continued possession of the leased premises under such leases.
 
(q)          Mortgages; Deeds of Trust. Except as described in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement and the Prospectus Supplement, the Company has not issued any debt and has no debt outstanding. Except as described in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus Supplement and the SEC Reports, none of the properties owned by the Company or the Subsidiaries is encumbered by any credit agreements, mortgages, deeds of trust, guaranties, side letters, and other documents evidencing, securing or otherwise relating to any secured or unsecured indebtedness of the Company or any of the Subsidiaries.
 
 
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(r)          Intellectual Property. The Company and the Subsidiaries have, or have rights to use, all patents, patent applications, trademarks, trademark applications, service marks, trade names, trade secrets, inventions, copyrights, licenses and other intellectual property rights and similar rights necessary or required for use in connection with their respective businesses as described in the SEC Reports and which the failure to do so could have a Material Adverse Effect (collectively, the “Intellectual Property Rights”). None of, and neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received a written notice that any of, the Intellectual Property Rights has expired, terminated or been abandoned, or is expected to expire or terminate or be abandoned, within two (2) years from the date of this Agreement, except as could not, individually or in the aggregate, have or reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received, since the date of the latest audited financial statements included within the SEC Reports, a written notice of a claim or otherwise has any knowledge that the Intellectual Property Rights violate or infringe upon the rights of any Person, except as could not, individually or in the aggregate, have or reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. To the knowledge of the Company, all such Intellectual Property Rights are enforceable and there is no existing infringement by another Person of any of the Intellectual Property Rights, except as could not, individually or in the aggregate, have or reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company and the Subsidiaries have taken reasonable security measures to protect the secrecy, confidentiality and value of all of their intellectual properties, except where failure to do so could not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.
  
(s)          Insurance. The Company and the Subsidiaries are insured by insurers of recognized financial responsibility against such losses and risks and in such amounts as are prudent and customary in the businesses in which the Company and the Subsidiaries are engaged, including, but not limited to, directors and officers insurance coverage. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business without a significant increase in cost.
 
(t)          Transactions With Affiliates and Employees. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement and the SEC Reports, none of the officers or directors of the Company or any Subsidiary and, to the knowledge of the Company, none of the employees of the Company or any Subsidiary is presently a party to any transaction with the Company or any Subsidiary (other than for services as employees, officers and directors), including any contract, agreement or other arrangement providing for the furnishing of services to or by, providing for rental of real or personal property to or from, providing for the borrowing of money from or lending of money to or otherwise requiring payments to or from, any officer, director or such employee or, to the knowledge of the Company, any entity in which any officer, director, or any such employee has a substantial interest or is an officer, director, trustee, stockholder, member or partner, in each case in excess of $120,000 other than for (i) payment of salary or consulting fees for services rendered, (ii) reimbursement for expenses incurred on behalf of the Company and (iii) other employee benefits, including stock option agreements under any stock option plan of the Company.
 
(u)          Certain Fees. Except as set forth in the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement and the Prospectus Supplement, no brokerage or finder’s fees or commissions are or will be payable by the Company, any Subsidiary or Affiliate of the Company to any broker, financial advisor or consultant, finder, placement agent, investment banker, bank or other Person with respect to the transactions contemplated by the Transaction Documents. To the Company’s knowledge, there are no other arrangements, agreements or understandings of the Company or, to the Company’s knowledge, any of its stockholders that may affect the Underwriters’ compensation, as determined by FINRA. The Company has not made any direct or indirect payments (in cash, securities or otherwise) in connection with the offering of the Public Shares to: (i) any person, as a finder’s fee, consulting fee or otherwise, in consideration of such person raising capital for the Company or introducing to the Company persons who raised or provided capital to the Company; (ii)  any FINRA member; or (iii) any person or entity that has any direct or indirect affiliation or association with any FINRA member, within the twelve months prior to the Execution Date. None of the net proceeds of the Offering will be paid by the Company to any participating FINRA member or its affiliates, except as specifically authorized herein.
   
(v)         Investment Company. The Company is not, and is not an Affiliate of, and immediately after receipt of payment for the Public Shares will not be or be an Affiliate of, an “investment company” within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended. The Company shall conduct its business in a manner so that it will not become an “investment company” subject to registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.
 
 
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(w)          Registration Rights. No Person has any right to cause the Company or any Subsidiary to effect the registration under the Securities Act of any securities of the Company or any Subsidiary that has not previously been waived or satisfied.
 
(x)          Listing and Maintenance Requirements. The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or which to its knowledge is likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission is contemplating terminating such registration. Except as set forth in the SEC Reports, the Company has not, in the 12 months preceding the date hereof, received notice from any Trading Market on which the Common Stock is or has been listed or quoted to the effect that the Company is not in compliance with the listing or maintenance requirements of such Trading Market. The Common Stock is currently eligible for electronic transfer through the Depository Trust Company or another established clearing corporation and the Company is current in payment of the fees of the Depository Trust Company (or such other established clearing corporation) in connection with such electronic transfer.
  
(y)         No Integrated Offering. Neither the Company, nor any of its Affiliates, nor any Person acting on its or their behalf has, directly or indirectly, made any offers or sales of any security or solicited any offers to buy any security, under circumstances that would cause this offering of the Public Shares to be integrated with prior offerings by the Company for purposes of any applicable shareholder approval provisions of any Trading Market on which any of the securities of the Company are listed or designated.
 
(z)         Solvency. The SEC Reports sets forth as of the date hereof all outstanding secured and unsecured Indebtedness of the Company or any Subsidiary, or for which the Company or any Subsidiary has commitments.
  
(aa)         Payment of Taxes. Except for matters that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, the Company and its Subsidiaries each (i) has made or filed all United States federal, state and local income and all foreign income and franchise tax returns, reports and declarations required by any jurisdiction to which it is subject, (ii) has paid all taxes and other governmental assessments and charges that are material in amount, shown or determined to be due on such returns, reports and declarations and (iii) has set aside on its books provision reasonably adequate for the payment of all material taxes for periods subsequent to the periods to which such returns, reports or declarations apply. There are no unpaid taxes in any material amount claimed to be due by the taxing authority of any jurisdiction, and the officers of the Company or of any Subsidiary know of no basis for any such claim. The provisions for taxes payable, if any, shown on the financial statements filed with or as part of the Registration Statement are sufficient for all accrued and unpaid taxes, whether or not disputed, and for all periods to and including the dates of such consolidated financial statements. The term “taxes” mean all federal, state, local, foreign, and other net income, gross income, gross receipts, sales, use, ad valorem, transfer, franchise, profits, license, lease, service, service use, withholding, payroll, employment, excise, severance, stamp, occupation, premium, property, windfall profits, customs, duties or other taxes, fees, assessments, or charges of any kind whatsoever, together with any interest and any penalties, additions to tax, or additional amounts with respect thereto. The term “returns” means all returns, declarations, reports, statements, and other documents required to be filed in respect to taxes.
 
(bb)         Foreign Corrupt Practices. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary, nor to the knowledge of the Company or any Subsidiary, any agent or other person acting on behalf of the Company or any Subsidiary, has (i) directly or indirectly, used any funds for unlawful contributions, gifts, entertainment or other unlawful expenses related to foreign or domestic political activity, (ii) made any unlawful payment to foreign or domestic government officials or employees or to any foreign or domestic political parties or campaigns from corporate funds, (iii) failed to disclose fully any contribution made by the Company or any Subsidiary (or made by any person acting on its behalf of which the Company is aware) which is in violation of law, or (iv) violated in any material respect any provision of the FCPA. The Company has taken reasonable steps to ensure that its accounting controls and procedures are sufficient to cause the Company to comply in all material respects with the FCPA.
 
 
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(cc)         Accountants. To the knowledge and belief of the Company, the Company Auditor (i) is an independent registered public accounting firm as required by the Exchange Act and (ii) shall express its opinion with respect to the financial statements to be included in the Company’s Annual Report for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2019. The Company Auditor has not, during the periods covered by the financial statements included in the SEC Reports, provided to the Company any non-audit services, as such term is used in Section 10A(g) of the Exchange Act.
 
(dd)         Office of Foreign Assets Control. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any director, officer, agent, employee or affiliate of the Company or any Subsidiary is currently subject to any U.S. sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Treasury Department.
 
(ee)         U.S. Real Property Holding Corporation. The Company is not and has never been a U.S. real property holding corporation within the meaning of Section 897 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the Company shall so certify upon the Representative’s request.
 
(ff)         Bank Holding Company Act. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries or Affiliates is subject to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the “BHCA”) and to regulation by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve”). Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries or Affiliates owns or controls, directly or indirectly, five percent (5%) or more of the outstanding shares of any class of voting securities or twenty-five percent (25%) or more of the total equity of a bank or any entity that is subject to the BHCA and to regulation by the Federal Reserve. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries or Affiliates exercises a controlling influence over the management or policies of a bank or any entity that is subject to the BHCA and to regulation by the Federal Reserve.
 
(gg)         Money Laundering. The operations of the Company and its Subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with applicable financial record-keeping and reporting requirements of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, applicable money laundering statutes and applicable rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”), and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any Subsidiary with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company or any Subsidiary, threatened.
 
(hh)         D&O Questionnaires. To the Company’s knowledge, all information contained in the questionnaires completed by each of the Company’s directors and officers immediately prior to the Offering is true and correct in all respects and the Company has not become aware of any information which would cause the information disclosed in such questionnaires become inaccurate and incorrect.
 
(ii)         FINRA Affiliation. No officer, director or, to the Company’s knowledge, any beneficial owner of 5% or more of the Company’s unregistered securities has any direct or indirect affiliation or association with any FINRA member (as determined in accordance with the rules and regulations of FINRA) that is participating in the Offering.
  
(jj)       Officers’ Certificate. Any certificate signed by any duly authorized officer of the Company and delivered to the Representative or NMRS shall be deemed a representation and warranty by the Company to the Underwriters as to the matters covered thereby.
 
(kk)         Board of Directors. The Board of Directors is comprised of the persons set forth in the Company’s latest Form 10-K included within the SEC Reports under the heading captioned “Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance.” To the Company’s knowledge, the qualifications of the persons serving as board members and the overall composition of the Board of Directors comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules promulgated thereunder applicable to the Company and the rules of the Trading Market. At least one member of the Board of Directors qualifies as a “financial expert” as such term is defined under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules promulgated thereunder and the rules of the Trading Market. In addition, at least a majority of the persons serving on the Board of Directors qualify as “independent” under the rules of the Trading Market.
 
 
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(ll)         Sarbanes-Oxley; Internal Accounting Controls. The Company and the Subsidiaries are in compliance with any and all applicable requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 that are effective as of the date hereof, and any and all applicable rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission thereunder that are effective as of the date hereof and as of the Closing Date. The Company and the Subsidiaries maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that: (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations, (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain asset accountability, (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization, and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences. The Company and the Subsidiaries have established disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e)) for the Company and the Subsidiaries and designed such disclosure controls and procedures to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms. The Company’s certifying officers have evaluated the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and procedures of the Company and the Subsidiaries as of the end of the period covered by the most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act (such date, the “Evaluation Date”). The Company presented in its most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act the conclusions of the certifying officers about the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and procedures based on their evaluations as of the Evaluation Date. Since the Evaluation Date, there have been no changes in the internal control over financial reporting (as such term is defined in the Exchange Act) of the Company and its Subsidiaries that have materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the internal control over financial reporting of the Company and its Subsidiaries.
 
(mm)           Estimates of Reserves. The information underlying the estimates of the reserves of the Company and its subsidiaries, which was supplied by the Company to PeTech Enterprises, Inc. (the “Reserve Engineer”), for purposes of preparing the reserve reports incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (the “Reserve Reports”), including production and costs of operation and estimates of future capital expenditures and other future exploration and development costs, was true and correct in all material respects on the dates such estimates were made, and such information was supplied and prepared in good faith, with a reasonable basis and in accordance with customary industry practices. other than normal production of the reserves, the impact of changes in prices and costs, and fluctuations in demand for oil and natural gas, and except as disclosed in or contemplated by each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company is not aware of any facts or circumstances that would in the aggregate result in a material adverse change in the aggregate net proved reserves, or the aggregate present value or the standardized measure of the future net cash flows therefrom, as described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and as reflected in the Reserve Reports. and the estimates of such reserves and the standardized measure of such reserves as described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and reflected in the Reserve Reports referenced therein have been prepared in good faith and in a manner that complies with the applicable requirements of the rules under the Securities Act with respect to such estimates. The Reserve Engineer was, as of the respective dates of the Reserve Reports prepared by it, and is, as of the date hereof, an independent petroleum engineer with respect to the Company and its subsidiaries.
 
(nn)           Oil and Gas Leases. As of the date hereof, (i) all royalties, rentals, deposits and other amounts owed under the oil and gas leases constituting the oil and gas properties of the Company and its subsidiaries have been properly and timely paid (other than amounts held in suspense accounts pending routine payments or related to disputes about the proper identification of royalty owners), and no amount of proceeds from the sale or production attributable to the oil and gas properties of the Company and its subsidiaries are currently being held in suspense by any purchaser thereof, except where such amounts due could not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect, and (ii) there are no claims under take-or-pay contracts pursuant to which natural gas purchasers have any makeup rights affecting the interests of the Company, and its subsidiaries in their oil and gas properties, except where such claims could not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.
 
 
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(oo)           Property. (i) The Company and the Subsidiaries have good and marketable fee simple title (or in the case of ground leases, a valid leasehold interest) to all real property owned by them and the improvements (exclusive of improvements owned by tenants or by landlords, if applicable) located thereon, in each case, free and clear of all mortgages, pledges, liens, security interests, claims, restrictions or encumbrances of any kind, except such as (A) are described in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement and the Prospectus Supplement, (B) will not, singly or in the aggregate, materially affect the value of such property and do not interfere in any material respect with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company or any of the Subsidiaries, or (C) would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect. (ii) except as otherwise set forth in or described in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement and the Prospectus Supplement and except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected have a Material Adverse Effect, all of the leases and subleases of the Company and the Subsidiaries, considered as one enterprise, and under which the Company or any of the Subsidiaries hold properties described in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement and the Prospectus Supplement, are in full force and effect, and neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has any notice of any claim of any sort that has been asserted by anyone adverse to the rights of the Company or any Subsidiary under any of the leases or subleases mentioned above, or affecting or questioning the rights of the Company or such Subsidiary to the continued possession of the leased or subleased premises under any such lease or sublease. (iii) none of the Company or any of the Subsidiaries has received from any governmental authority to which the Company or a Subsidiary is subject any written notice of any condemnation of or zoning change affecting the properties of the Company and the Subsidiaries or any part thereof, and none of the Company or any of the Subsidiaries knows of any condemnation or zoning change affecting the properties of the Company and the Subsidiaries which is threatened and, in each case, which if consummated would reasonably be expected to, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect. (iv) each of the properties of the Company and the Subsidiaries complies with all applicable codes, ordinances, laws and regulations (including without limitation, building and zoning codes, laws and regulations and laws relating to access to the properties of the Company and the Subsidiaries), except for failures to the extent disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement and the Prospectus Supplement and except for such failures to comply that would not individually or in the aggregate reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. (v) neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received written notice of proposed material special assessment or any proposed change in any property tax, zoning or land use law or availability of water affecting any property that would reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect. and (vi) to the knowledge of the Company and the Subsidiaries, except as set forth in or described in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement and the Prospectus Supplement or reflected in the pro forma financial statements, and except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected have a Material Adverse Effect, there are no uncured events of default, or events that with the giving of notice or passage of time, or both, would constitute an event of default, by any tenant under any of the terms and provisions of the leases.
 
(pp)           No Acquisitions or Dispositions. (A) There are no contracts, letters of intent, term sheets, agreements, arrangements or understandings with respect to the direct or indirect acquisition or disposition by any of the Company or the Subsidiaries of interests in assets or real property that are required to be described in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement and the Prospectus Supplement that are not so described. and (B) neither the Company nor any of the Subsidiaries has sold any real property to a third party during the immediately preceding twelve calendar months except as described in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement and the Prospectus Supplement.
 
ARTICLE IV.
OTHER AGREEMENTS OF THE PARTIES
 
4.1         Amendments to Registration Statement. The Company has delivered, or will as promptly as practicable deliver, to the Underwriters complete conformed copies of the Registration Statement and of each consent and certificate of experts, as applicable, filed as a part thereof, the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement and the Prospectus Supplement, in such quantities and at such places as an Underwriter reasonably requests. Documents filed with the Commission pursuant to its EDGAR system shall be deemed to have been delivered to the Underwriters pursuant to this Section. Neither the Company nor any of its directors and officers has distributed and none of them will distribute, prior to the Closing Date, any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Public Shares other than the Registration Statement, Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement and the Prospectus Supplement, and copies of the documents incorporated by reference therein. The Company shall not file any such amendment or supplement to which the Representative shall reasonably object in writing.
 
 
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4.2         Federal Securities Laws.
 
(a)          Compliance. During the time when a prospectus is required to be delivered under the Securities Act, the Company will use its reasonable best efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder and the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, as from time to time in force, so far as necessary to permit the continuance of sales of or dealings in the Public Shares in accordance with the provisions hereof and the Prospectus Supplement. If at any time when a prospectus relating to the Public Shares is required to be delivered under the Securities Act, any event shall have occurred as a result of which, in the opinion of counsel for the Company or counsel for the Underwriters, the Prospectus Supplement, as then amended or supplemented, includes an untrue statement of a material fact or omits to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, or if it is necessary at any time to amend the Prospectus Supplement to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will notify the Underwriters promptly and prepare and file with the Commission, subject to Section 4.1 hereof, an appropriate amendment or supplement in accordance with Section 10 of the Securities Act.
   
(b)          Filing of Final Prospectus Supplement. The Company will file the Prospectus Supplement (in form and substance satisfactory to the Representative) with the Commission pursuant to the requirements of Rule 424.
 
(c)          Exchange Act Registration. For a period of three years from the Execution Date, the Company will use its reasonable best efforts to maintain the registration of the Closing Shares and, to the extent sold, the Option Shares, under the Exchange Act. The Company will not deregister the Closing Shares and, to the extent sold, the Option Shares, under the Exchange Act without the prior written consent of the Representative. Nothing in this Section 4.2(c) or Section 4.17 is intended to prevent the Company from completing a change of control or similar transaction even though it may have the effects described in such sections.
 
(d)          Free Writing Prospectuses. The Company represents and agrees that it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Public Shares that would constitute an issuer free writing prospectus, as defined in Rule 433 of the rules and regulations under the Securities Act, without the prior written consent of the Representative. Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Representative is herein referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.” The Company represents that it will treat each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an “issuer free writing prospectus” as defined in rule and regulations under the Securities Act, and has complied and will comply with the applicable requirements of Rule 433 of the Securities Act, including timely Commission filing where required, legending and record keeping.
   
4.3         Effectiveness and Events Requiring Notice to the Underwriters. The Company will promptly notify the Underwriters and confirm the notice in writing: (i) of the effectiveness of the Registration Statement and any amendment thereto; (ii) of the issuance by the Commission of any stop order or of the initiation, or the threatening, of any proceeding for that purpose; (iii) of the issuance by any state securities commission of any proceedings for the suspension of the qualification of the Public Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction or of the initiation, or the threatening, of any proceeding for that purpose; (iv) of the mailing and delivery to the Commission for filing of any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus; (v) of the receipt of any comments or request for any additional information from the Commission; and (vi) of the happening of any event during the period described in this Section 4.3 that, in the judgment of the Company, makes any statement of a material fact made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus untrue or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. If the Commission or any state securities commission shall enter a stop order or suspend such qualification at any time, the Company will make every reasonable effort to obtain promptly the lifting of such order.
 
 
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4.4          Review of Financial Statements. For a period of three (3) years from the Execution Date, the Company, at its expense, shall cause its regularly engaged independent registered public accountants to review (but not audit) the Company’s financial statements for each of the first three fiscal quarters prior to the announcement of quarterly financial information.
 
4.5          Reports to the Underwriters.
 
(a)          Periodic Reports, etc. For a period of three years from the Execution Date, the Company will furnish to the Representative copies of such financial statements and other periodic and special reports as the Company from time to time furnishes generally to holders of any class of its securities and also promptly furnish to the Underwriters: (i) a copy of each periodic report the Company shall be required to file with the Commission; (ii) a copy of every press release and every news item and article with respect to the Company or its affairs which was released by the Company; (iii) a copy of each Form 8-K prepared and filed by the Company; (iv) a copy of each registration statement filed by the Company under the Securities Act; and (v) such additional documents and information with respect to the Company and the affairs of any future Subsidiaries of the Company as the Representative may from time to time reasonably request; provided that the Underwriters shall each sign, if requested by the Company, a Regulation FD compliant confidentiality agreement which is reasonably acceptable to the Representative in connection with such Underwriter’s receipt of such information. Documents filed with the Commission pursuant to its EDGAR system or otherwise disseminated widely to the public shall be deemed to have been delivered to the Underwriters pursuant to this Section.
 
(b)          General Expenses Related to the Offering. The Company hereby agrees to pay all expenses incident to the performance of the obligations of the Company under this Agreement, including, but not limited to: (A) all expenses incurred in connection with the delivery to the Underwriters of the Public Shares (including all fees and expenses of the registrar and transfer agent of the Public Shares, and the cost of preparing and printing stock certificates), (B) all expenses and fees (including, without limitation, fees and expenses of the Company’s counsel) in connection with the preparation, printing, filing, delivery, and shipping of the Registration Statement (including the financial statements therein and all amendments, schedules, and exhibits thereto), the Public Shares, the Preliminary Supplement, the Prospectus Supplement and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus and any amendment thereof or supplement thereto, (C) all reasonable filing fees and reasonable fees and disbursements of the Underwriters’ counsel incurred in connection with the qualification of the Public Shares for offering and sale by the Underwriters or by dealers under the securities or blue sky laws of the states and other jurisdictions that the Representative shall designate, (D) the reasonable filing fees, if any, payable to FINRA in connection with the Offering, (E) listing fees, if any, and (F) all other costs and expenses incident to the performance of its obligations hereunder that are not otherwise specifically provided for herein. The Company will reimburse the Representative for the Underwriters’ reasonable out-of-pocket expenses, including “road show,” diligence, legal fees and disbursements, in connection with the purchase and sale of the Public Shares contemplated hereby up to an aggregate of $50,000 (including amounts payable pursuant to clauses (C) and (D) above).
 
4.6         Application of Net Proceeds. The Company will apply the net proceeds from the Offering received by it in a manner consistent with the application described under the caption “Use of Proceeds” in the Prospectus.
 
4.7         Delivery of Earnings Statements to Security Holders. The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but not later than the first day of the fifteenth full calendar month following the Execution Date, an earnings statement (which need not be certified by independent public or independent certified public accountants unless required by the Securities Act or the Rules and Regulations under the Securities Act, but which shall satisfy the provisions of Rule 158(a) under Section 11(a) of the Securities Act) covering a period of at least twelve consecutive months beginning after the Execution Date, provided that filings of the Company’s reports, schedules, forms, statements and other documents required to be filed by the Company under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, including pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) thereof (including the exhibits thereto and documents incorporated by reference therein), after the Execution Date shall be deemed to constitute delivery.
 
 
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4.8         Stabilization. Neither the Company, nor, to its knowledge, any of its employees, directors or shareholders (without the consent of the Representative) has taken or will take, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that has constituted or that might reasonably be expected to cause or result in, under the Exchange Act, or otherwise, stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Public Shares.
 
4.9       Internal Controls. The Company will maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurances that: (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary in order to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP and to maintain accountability for assets; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences.
 
4.10       Accountants. The Company shall continue to retain a nationally recognized independent certified public accounting firm for a period of at least three years after the Execution Date. The Underwriters acknowledge that the Company Auditor is acceptable to the Underwriters.
   
4.11        FINRA. The Company shall advise the Underwriters (who shall make an appropriate filing with FINRA) if it is aware that any 5% or greater shareholder of the Company becomes an affiliate or associated person of an Underwriter.
 
4.12        No Fiduciary Duties. The Company acknowledges and agrees that the Underwriters’ responsibility to the Company is solely contractual and commercial in nature, based on arms-length negotiations and that neither the Underwriters nor their affiliates or any selected dealer shall be deemed to be acting in a fiduciary capacity, or otherwise owes any fiduciary duty to the Company or any of its affiliates in connection with the Offering and the other transactions contemplated by this Agreement. Notwithstanding anything in this Agreement to the contrary, the Company acknowledges that the Underwriters may have financial interests in the success of the Offering that are not limited to the difference between the price to the public and the purchase price paid to the Company by the Underwriters for the shares and the Underwriters have no obligation to disclose, or account to the Company for, any of such additional financial interests. The Company hereby waives and releases, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims that the Company may have against the Underwriters with respect to any breach or alleged breach of fiduciary duty.
 
4.13        Board Composition and Board Designations. The Company shall ensure that: (i) the qualifications of the persons serving as board members and the overall composition of the Board of Directors comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules promulgated thereunder and with the listing requirements of the Trading Market and (ii) if applicable, at least one member of the Board of Directors qualifies as a “financial expert” as such term is defined under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules promulgated thereunder.
   
4.14       Securities Laws Disclosure; Publicity. At the request of the Representative, at the time requested by the Representative, the Company shall issue a press release disclosing the material terms of the Offering. The Company and the Representative shall consult with each other in issuing any other press releases with respect to the Offering, and neither the Company nor any Underwriter shall issue any such press release or otherwise make any public statement without the prior consent of the Company, with respect to any press release of such Underwriter, or without the prior consent of such Underwriter, with respect to any press release of the Company, which consent shall not unreasonably be withheld or delayed, except if such disclosure is required by law, in which case the disclosing party shall promptly provide the other party with prior notice of such public statement or communication.
 
4.15       Shareholder Rights Plan. No claim will be made or enforced by the Company or, with the consent of the Company, any other Person, that any Underwriter of the Public Shares is an “Acquiring Person” under any control share acquisition, business combination, poison pill (including any distribution under a rights agreement) or similar anti-takeover plan or arrangement in effect or hereafter adopted by the Company, or that any Underwriter of the Public Shares could be deemed to trigger the provisions of any such plan or arrangement, by virtue of receiving Public Shares.
 
 
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4.16       Reservation of Common Stock. As of the date hereof, the Company has reserved and the Company shall continue to reserve and keep available at all times, free of preemptive rights, a sufficient number of shares of Common Stock for the purpose of enabling the Company to issue Option Shares pursuant to the Option.
 
4.17       Listing of Common Stock. The Company hereby agrees to use its reasonable best efforts to maintain the listing or quotation of the Common Stock on the Trading Market on which it is currently listed, and concurrently with the Closing, the Company shall apply to list or quote all of the Closing Shares and Option Shares on such Trading Market and promptly secure the listing of all of the Closing Shares and Option Shares on such Trading Market. The Company further agrees, if the Company applies to have the Common Stock traded on any other Trading Market, it will then include in such application all of the Closing Shares and Option Shares, and will take such other action as is reasonably necessary to cause all of the Closing Shares and Option Shares to be listed or quoted on such other Trading Market as promptly as possible. The Company will then take all action reasonably necessary to continue the listing and trading of its Common Stock on a Trading Market and will comply in all respects with the Company’s reporting, filing and other obligations under the bylaws or rules of the Trading Market. The Company agrees to maintain the eligibility of the Common Stock for electronic transfer through the Depository Trust Company or another established clearing corporation, including, without limitation, by timely payment of fees to the Depository Trust Company or such other established clearing corporation in connection with such electronic transfer.
  
4.18       Subsequent Equity Sales. The Company hereby agrees that, without the prior written consent of the Representative, it will not, during the period beginning on the date hereof and ending ninety (90) days after the date hereof (the “Lock-Up Period”), (i) offer, pledge, issue, sell, contract to sell, purchase, contract to purchase, lend, or otherwise transfer or dispose of, directly or indirectly, any shares of Common Stock or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for Common Stock, in a public offering; or (ii) enter into any swap or other arrangement that transfers to another, in whole or in part, any of the economic consequences of ownership of the Common Stock, whether any such transaction described in clause (i) or (ii) above is to be settled by delivery of Common Stock or such other securities, in cash or otherwise, in a public offering; or (iii) file any registration statement with the Commission relating to the offering of any shares of Common Stock or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for Common Stock. The restrictions contained in the preceding sentence shall not apply to (i) any private placement or other transaction not involving any public offering; (ii) the issuance of employee stock options and/or restricted stock awards pursuant to equity incentive plans or the filing of a Registration Statement on Form S-8 therefore; (iii) the issuance of securities in connection with an acquisition or a strategic relationship; or (iv) a public offering in which the Representative participates as an underwriter or placement agent.
 
4.19       Research Independence. The Company acknowledges that each Underwriters research analysts and research departments, if any, are required to be independent from their respective investment banking divisions and are subject to certain regulations and internal policies, and that such Underwriters research analysts may hold and make statements or investment recommendations and/or publish research reports with respect to the Company and/or the offering that differ from the views of its investment bankers. The Company hereby waives and releases, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims that the Company may have against such Underwriter with respect to any conflict of interest that may arise from the fact that the views expressed by their independent research analysts and research departments may be different from or inconsistent with the views or advice communicated to the Company by such Underwriters investment banking divisions. The Company acknowledges that the Representative is a full service securities firm and as such from time to time, subject to applicable securities laws, may effect transactions for its own account or the account of its customers and hold long or short position in debt or equity securities of the Company.
 
     
 
 
 
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ARTICLE V.
DEFAULT BY UNDERWRITERS
 
If on the Closing Date or any Option Closing Date, if any, any Underwriter shall fail to purchase and pay for the portion of the Closing Shares or Option Shares, as the case may be, which such Underwriter has agreed to purchase and pay for on such date (otherwise than by reason of any default on the part of the Company), the Representative, or if the Representative is the defaulting Underwriter, the non-defaulting Underwriters, shall use their reasonable best efforts to procure within 36 hours thereafter one or more of the other Underwriters, or any others, to purchase from the Company such amounts as may be agreed upon and upon the terms set forth herein, the Closing Shares or Option Shares, as the case may be, which the defaulting Underwriter or Underwriters failed to purchase. If during such 36 hours the Representative shall not have procured such other Underwriters, or any others, to purchase the Closing Shares or Option Shares, as the case may be, agreed to be purchased by the defaulting Underwriter or Underwriters, then (a) if the aggregate number of Closing Shares or Option Shares, as the case may be, with respect to which such default shall occur does not exceed 10% of the Closing Shares or Option Shares, as the case may be, covered hereby, the other Underwriters shall be obligated, severally, in proportion to the respective numbers of Closing Shares or Option Shares, as the case may be, which they are obligated to purchase hereunder, to purchase the Closing Shares or Option Shares, as the case may be, which such defaulting Underwriter or Underwriters failed to purchase, or (b) if the aggregate number of Closing Shares or Option Shares, as the case may be, with respect to which such default shall occur exceeds 10% of the Closing Shares or Option Shares, as the case may be, covered hereby, the Company will have the right to terminate this Agreement without liability on the part of the non-defaulting Underwriters or of the Company except to the extent provided in Article VI hereof. In the event of a default by any Underwriter or Underwriters, as set forth in this Article V, the applicable Closing Date may be postponed for such period, not exceeding seven days, as the Representative, or if the Representative is the defaulting Underwriter, the non-defaulting Underwriters, may determine in order that the required changes in the Prospectus or in any other documents or arrangements may be effected. The term “Underwriter” includes any person substituted for a defaulting Underwriter. Any action taken under this Section shall not relieve any defaulting Underwriter from liability in respect of any default of such Underwriter under this Agreement.
   
ARTICLE VI.
INDEMNIFICATION
 
6.1          Indemnification of the Underwriters. Subject to the conditions set forth below, the Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Underwriters, and each dealer selected by each Underwriter that participates in the offer and sale of the Public Shares (each a “Selected Dealer”) and each of their respective directors, officers and employees and each Person, if any, who controls such Underwriter or any Selected Dealer (“Controlling Person”) within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense whatsoever (including but not limited to any and all legal or other expenses reasonably incurred in investigating, preparing or defending against any litigation, commenced or threatened, or any claim whatsoever, whether arising out of any action between such Underwriter and the Company or between such Underwriter and any third party or otherwise) to which they or any of them may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or any other statute or at common law or otherwise or under the laws of foreign countries, arising out of or based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in (i) the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus Supplement (as from time to time each may be amended and supplemented); (ii) any materials or information provided to investors by, or with the approval of, the Company in connection with the marketing of the offering of the Public Shares, including any “road show” or investor presentations made to investors by the Company (whether in person or electronically); or (iii) any application or other document or written communication (in this Article VI, collectively called “application”) executed by the Company or based upon written information furnished by the Company in any jurisdiction in order to qualify the Public Shares under the securities laws thereof or filed with the Commission, any state securities commission or agency, Trading Market or any securities exchange; or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, unless such statement or omission was made in reliance upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company with respect to the applicable Underwriter by or on behalf of such Underwriter expressly for use in the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus Supplement, or any amendment or supplement thereto, or in any application, as the case may be. With respect to any untrue statement or omission or alleged untrue statement or omission made in the Preliminary Prospectus, if any, the indemnity agreement contained in this Section 6.1 shall not inure to the benefit of an Underwriter to the extent that any loss, liability, claim, damage or expense of such Underwriter results from the fact that a copy of the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus Supplement was not given or sent to the Person asserting any such loss, liability, claim or damage at or prior to the written confirmation of sale of the Public Shares to such Person as required by the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, and if the untrue statement or omission has been corrected in the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus Supplement, unless such failure to deliver the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus Supplement was a result of non-compliance by the Company with its obligations under this Agreement. The Company agrees promptly to notify each Underwriter of the commencement of any litigation or proceedings against the Company or any of its officers, directors or Controlling Persons in connection with the issue and sale of the Public Shares or in connection with the Registration Statement, the Prospectus the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus Supplement.
  
 
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6.2         Procedure. If any action is brought against an Underwriter, a Selected Dealer or a Controlling Person in respect of which indemnity may be sought against the Company pursuant to Section 6.1, such Underwriter, such Selected Dealer or Controlling Person, as the case may be, shall promptly notify the Company in writing of the institution of such action and the Company shall assume the defense of such action, including the employment and fees of counsel (subject to the reasonable approval of such Underwriter or such Selected Dealer, as the case may be) and payment of actual expenses. Such Underwriter, such Selected Dealer or Controlling Person shall have the right to employ its or their own counsel in any such case, but the fees and expenses of such counsel shall be at the expense of such Underwriter, such Selected Dealer or Controlling Person unless (i) the employment of such counsel at the expense of the Company shall have been authorized in writing by the Company in connection with the defense of such action, or (ii) the Company shall not have employed counsel to have charge of the defense of such action, or (iii) such indemnified party or parties shall have reasonably concluded that there may be defenses available to it or them which are different from or additional to those available to the Company (in which case the Company shall not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party or parties), in any of which events the reasonable fees and expenses of not more than one additional firm of attorneys selected by such Underwriter (in addition to local counsel), Selected Dealer and/or Controlling Person shall be borne by the Company. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, if any Underwriter, Selected Dealer or Controlling Person shall assume the defense of such action as provided above, the Company shall have the right to approve the terms of any settlement of such action which approval shall not be unreasonably withheld.
 
6.3          Indemnification of the Company. Each Underwriter severally and not jointly agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company, its directors, officers and employees and agents who control the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the foregoing indemnity from the Company to such Underwriter, as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions made in the Registration Statement, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus Supplement or any amendment or supplement thereto or in any application, in reliance upon, and in strict conformity with, written information furnished to the Company with respect to such Underwriter by or on behalf of such Underwriter expressly for use in the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus Supplement or any amendment or supplement thereto or in any such application. In case any action shall be brought against the Company or any other Person so indemnified based on the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Preliminary Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus Supplement or any amendment or supplement thereto or any application, and in respect of which indemnity may be sought against such Underwriter, such Underwriter shall have the rights and duties given to the Company, and the Company and each other Person so indemnified shall have the rights and duties given to such Underwriter by the provisions of this Article VI. Notwithstanding the provisions of this Section 6.3, no Underwriter shall be required to indemnify the Company for any amount in excess of the underwriting discounts and commissions applicable to the Public Shares purchased by such Underwriter. The Underwriters' obligations in this Section 6.3 to indemnify the Company are several in proportion to their respective underwriting obligations and not joint.
 
6.4          Contribution.
 
(a)          Contribution Rights. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution under the Securities Act in any case in which (i) any Person entitled to indemnification under this Article VI makes a claim for indemnification pursuant hereto but it is judicially determined (by the entry of a final judgment or decree by a court of competent jurisdiction and the expiration of time to appeal or the denial of the last right of appeal) that such indemnification may not be enforced in such case notwithstanding the fact that this Article VI provides for indemnification in such case, or (ii) contribution under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or otherwise may be required on the part of any such Person in circumstances for which indemnification is provided under this Article VI, then, and in each such case, the Company and each Underwriter, severally and not jointly, shall contribute to the aggregate losses, liabilities, claims, damages and expenses of the nature contemplated by said indemnity agreement incurred by the Company and such Underwriter, as incurred, in such proportions that such Underwriter is responsible for that portion represented by the percentage that the underwriting discount appearing on the cover page of the Prospectus Supplement bears to the initial offering price appearing thereon and the Company is responsible for the balance; provided, that, no Person guilty of a fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) shall be entitled to contribution from any Person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section, each director, officer and employee of such Underwriter or the Company, as applicable, and each Person, if any, who controls such Underwriter or the Company, as applicable, within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act shall have the same rights to contribution as such Underwriter or the Company, as applicable. Notwithstanding the provisions of this Section 6.4, no Underwriter shall be required to contribute any amount in excess of the underwriting discounts and commissions applicable to the Public Shares purchased by such Underwriter. The Underwriters’ obligations in this Section 6.4 to contribute are several in proportion to their respective underwriting obligations and not joint.
 
 
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(b)          Contribution Procedure. Within fifteen days after receipt by any party to this Agreement (or its representative) of notice of the commencement of any action, suit or proceeding, such party will, if a claim for contribution in respect thereof is to be made against another party (“contributing party”), notify the contributing party of the commencement thereof, but the failure to so notify the contributing party will not relieve it from any liability which it may have to any other party other than for contribution hereunder. In case any such action, suit or proceeding is brought against any party, and such party notifies a contributing party or its representative of the commencement thereof within the aforesaid fifteen days, the contributing party will be entitled to participate therein with the notifying party and any other contributing party similarly notified. Any such contributing party shall not be liable to any party seeking contribution on account of any settlement of any claim, action or proceeding affected by such party seeking contribution without the written consent of such contributing party. The contribution provisions contained in this Section 6.4 are intended to supersede, to the extent permitted by law, any right to contribution under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or otherwise available.
  
ARTICLE VII.
MISCELLANEOUS
 
7.1         Termination.
 
(a)          Termination Right. The Representative shall have the right to terminate this Agreement at any time prior to any Closing Date, (i) if any domestic or international event or act or occurrence has materially disrupted, or in its opinion will in the immediate future materially disrupt, general securities markets in the United States; or (ii) if trading on any Trading Market shall have been suspended or materially limited, or minimum or maximum prices for trading shall have been fixed, or maximum ranges for prices for securities shall have been required by FINRA or by order of the Commission or any other government authority having jurisdiction, or (iii) if the United States shall have become involved in a new war or an increase in major hostilities, or (iv) if a banking moratorium has been declared by a New York State or federal authority, or (v) if a moratorium on foreign exchange trading has been declared which materially adversely impacts the United States securities markets, or (vi) if the Company shall have sustained a material loss by fire, flood, accident, hurricane, earthquake, theft, sabotage or other calamity or malicious act which, whether or not such loss shall have been insured, will, in the Representative’s opinion, make it inadvisable to proceed with the delivery of the Public Shares, or (vii) if the Company is in material breach of any of its representations, warranties or covenants hereunder, or (viii) if the Representative shall have become aware after the date hereof of such a material adverse change in the conditions or prospects of the Company, or such adverse material change in general market conditions as in the Representative’s judgment would make it impracticable to proceed with the offering, sale and/or delivery of the Public Shares or to enforce contracts made by the Underwriters for the sale of the Public Shares.
  
(b)          Expenses. In the event this Agreement shall be terminated pursuant to Section 7.1(a)(vii), within the time specified therein or any extensions thereof pursuant to the terms herein, the Company shall be obligated to reimburse the Representative for its actual and accountable out of pocket expenses incurred and directly related to the transactions contemplated herein, including the fees and disbursements of NMRS, up to $50,000 in the aggregate (providedhowever, that such expense cap in no way limits or impairs the indemnification and contribution provisions of this Agreement), upon presentation by the Representative of appropriate documentation evidencing the actual payment of such expenses.
 
 
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(c)          Indemnification. Notwithstanding any contrary provision contained in this Agreement, any election hereunder or any termination of this Agreement, and whether or not this Agreement is otherwise carried out, the provisions of Article VI shall not be in any way effected by such election or termination or failure to carry out the terms of this Agreement or any part hereof. 
  
7.2          Entire Agreement. The Transaction Documents, together with the exhibits and schedules thereto, the Prospectus and the Prospectus Supplement, contain the entire understanding of the parties with respect to the subject matter hereof and thereof and supersede all prior agreements and understandings, oral or written, with respect to such matters, which the parties acknowledge have been merged into such documents, exhibits and schedules.
 
7.3          Notices. Any and all notices or other communications or deliveries required or permitted to be provided hereunder shall be in writing and shall be deemed given and effective on the earliest of: (a) the date of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile at the facsimile number or e-mail attachment at the e-mail address set forth on the signature pages attached hereto at or prior to 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on a Trading Day, (b) the next Trading Day after the date of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile at the facsimile number or e-mail attachment at the e-mail address as set forth on the signature pages attached hereto on a day that is not a Trading Day or later than 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on any Trading Day, (c) the second (2nd) Trading Day following the date of mailing, if sent by U.S. nationally recognized overnight courier service or (d) upon actual receipt by the party to whom such notice is required to be given. The address for such notices and communications shall be as set forth on the signature pages attached hereto.
 
7.4          Amendments; Waivers. No provision of this Agreement may be waived, modified, supplemented or amended except in a written instrument signed, in the case of an amendment, by the Company and the Representative. No waiver of any default with respect to any provision, condition or requirement of this Agreement shall be deemed to be a continuing waiver in the future or a waiver of any subsequent default or a waiver of any other provision, condition or requirement hereof, nor shall any delay or omission of any party to exercise any right hereunder in any manner impair the exercise of any such right.
 
7.5          Headings. The headings herein are for convenience only, do not constitute a part of this Agreement and shall not be deemed to limit or affect any of the provisions hereof.
 
7.6          Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall be binding upon and inure to the benefit of the parties and their successors and permitted assigns.
  
7.7         Governing Law. All questions concerning the construction, validity, enforcement and interpretation of the Transaction Documents shall be governed by and construed and enforced in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, without regard to the principles of conflicts of law thereof. Each party agrees that all legal proceedings concerning the interpretations, enforcement and defense of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and any other Transaction Documents (whether brought against a party hereto or its respective affiliates, directors, officers, shareholders, partners, members, employees or agents) shall be commenced exclusively in the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, Borough of Manhattan for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection herewith or with any transaction contemplated hereby or discussed herein (including with respect to the enforcement of any of the Transaction Documents), and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any action, suit or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is improper or is an inconvenient venue for such proceeding. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy thereof via registered or certified mail or overnight delivery (with evidence of delivery) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Agreement and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient service of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any other manner permitted by law. If either party shall commence an action or proceeding to enforce any provisions of the Transaction Documents, then, in addition to the obligations of the Company under Article VI, the prevailing party in such action, suit or proceeding shall be reimbursed by the other party for its reasonable attorneys’ fees and other costs and expenses incurred with the investigation, preparation and prosecution of such action or proceeding.
 
 
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7.8         Survival. The representations and warranties contained herein shall survive the Closing and the Option Closing, if any, and the delivery of the Public Shares.
 
7.9         Execution. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, all of which when taken together shall be considered one and the same agreement and shall become effective when counterparts have been signed by each party and delivered to each other party, it being understood that the parties need not sign the same counterpart. In the event that any signature is delivered by facsimile transmission or by e-mail delivery of a “.pdf” format data file, such signature shall create a valid and binding obligation of the party executing (or on whose behalf such signature is executed) with the same force and effect as if such facsimile or “.pdf” signature page were an original thereof.
 
7.10       Severability. If any term, provision, covenant or restriction of this Agreement is held by a court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid, illegal, void or unenforceable, the remainder of the terms, provisions, covenants and restrictions set forth herein shall remain in full force and effect and shall in no way be affected, impaired or invalidated, and the parties hereto shall use their commercially reasonable efforts to find and employ an alternative means to achieve the same or substantially the same result as that contemplated by such term, provision, covenant or restriction. It is hereby stipulated and declared to be the intention of the parties that they would have executed the remaining terms, provisions, covenants and restrictions without including any of such that may be hereafter declared invalid, illegal, void or unenforceable.
 
7.11       Remedies. In addition to being entitled to exercise all rights provided herein or granted by law, including recovery of damages, the Underwriters and the Company will be entitled to specific performance under the Transaction Documents. The parties agree that monetary damages may not be adequate compensation for any loss incurred by reason of any breach of obligations contained in the Transaction Documents and hereby agree to waive and not to assert in any action for specific performance of any such obligation the defense that a remedy at law would be adequate.
   
7.12        Saturdays, Sundays, Holidays, etc.         If the last or appointed day for the taking of any action or the expiration of any right required or granted herein shall not be a Business Day, then such action may be taken or such right may be exercised on the next succeeding Business Day.
   
7.13       Construction. The parties agree that each of them and/or their respective counsel have reviewed and had an opportunity to revise the Transaction Documents and, therefore, the normal rule of construction to the effect that any ambiguities are to be resolved against the drafting party shall not be employed in the interpretation of the Transaction Documents or any amendments thereto. In addition, each and every reference to share prices and shares of Common Stock in any Transaction Document shall be subject to adjustment for reverse and forward stock splits, stock dividends, stock combinations and other similar transactions of the Common Stock that occur after the date of this Agreement.
 
7.14         WAIVER OF JURY TRIAL. IN ANY ACTION, SUIT, OR PROCEEDING IN ANY JURISDICTION BROUGHT BY ANY PARTY AGAINST ANY OTHER PARTY ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS AGREEMENT OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY, THE PARTIES EACH KNOWINGLY AND INTENTIONALLY, TO THE GREATEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, HEREBY ABSOLUTELY, UNCONDITIONALLY, IRREVOCABLY AND EXPRESSLY WAIVE FOREVER ANY RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY.
 
(Signature Pages Follow)    
 
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If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Underwriters and the Company, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement among the Company and the several Underwriters in accordance with its terms.
 
Very truly yours,
 
TORCHLIGHT ENERGY RESOURCES, INC.
 
By: /s/ John A. Brda
 
Name: John A. Brda
 
Title: President and CEO
 
 
 
 Address for Notice:
 
 
 
 
 
Torchlight Energy Resources, Inc.
 
 
5700 W. Plano Parkway, Suite 3600
 
 
Plano, Texas 75093
 
 
Attention: John A. Brda
 
 
 
 
 
 Copy to:
 
 
 
 
 
Axelrod & Smith
 
 
5300 Memorial Drive, Suite 1000
 
 
Houston, Texas 77007
 
 
Attention: Robert D. Axelrod
 
 
 
 
 
 
Accepted on the date first above written.
 
 
 
AEGIS CAPITAL CORP.
 
By: /s/ Joseph T. Rallo
Name: Joseph T. Rallo
Title: Co-Head Investment Banking
 
By /s/ David W. Boral
Name: David W. Boral
Title: Co-Head Investment Banking
 
 
 
Address for Notice:
 
 
 
Aegis Capital Corp.
 
810 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor
 
New York, NY 10019
 
Attention: Syndicate
 
 
 
Copy to:
 
 
 
Nelson Mullins Riley & Scarborough LLP
 
101 Constitution Avenue NW, Suite 900
 
Washington, DC 20001
 
Attention: Andrew M. Tucker
 
Email: andy.tucker@nelsonmullins.com
 
 
 
[Signature Page to Underwriting Agreement]
 
 
 

 
SCHEDULE I
 
 
 
SCHEDULE OF UNDERWRITERS
 
Underwriters
Closing Shares
 
Closing Purchase Price
Aegis Capital Corp.
3,285,715
 
$0.644
Total
3,285,715
 
$0.644
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
EXHIBIT A
 
Form of Lock-Up Agreement
 
 
January __, 2020
 
Aegis Capital Corp.
as Representative of the several Underwriters
listed on Schedule I of the Underwriting Agreement
810 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor
New York, New York 10019
 
Re:            
Proposed Public Offering by Torchlight Energy Resources, Inc.
 
Ladies and Gentlemen:
 
The undersigned, an executive officer and/or director of Torchlight Energy Resources, Inc., a Nevada corporation (the “Company”), understands that Aegis Capital Corp. (“Aegis Capital”), as representative of the Underwriters, proposes to enter into an Underwriting Agreement (the “Underwriting Agreement”) with the Company providing for the public offering (the “Offering”) of the Company’s common shares, $0.001 par value per share (the “Common Shares”). In recognition of the benefit that such an offering will confer upon the undersigned as an executive officer and/or director of the Company, and for other good and valuable consideration, the receipt and sufficiency of which are hereby acknowledged, the undersigned agrees with each underwriter to be named in the Underwriting Agreement that, from the date hereof until ninety (90) days from the date of the Underwriting Agreement, the undersigned will not, without the prior written consent of Aegis Capital, directly or indirectly, (i) offer, pledge, sell, contract to sell, sell any option or contract to purchase, purchase any option or contract to sell, grant any option, right or warrant for the sale of, or otherwise dispose of or transfer any Common Shares or any securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for Common Shares, whether now owned or hereafter acquired by the undersigned or with respect to which the undersigned has or hereafter acquires the power of disposition, or publicly announce an intention to do any of the foregoing, or make any demand or request for the Company to file any registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, with respect to any of the foregoing or (ii) enter into any swap, hedge or any other agreement or any transaction that transfers, in whole or in part, directly or indirectly, the economic consequence of ownership of the Common Shares, whether any such swap, hedge or transaction is to be settled by delivery of Common Shares or other securities, in cash or otherwise.
 
Notwithstanding the foregoing, the undersigned may transfer the undersigned’s Common Shares or securities convertible into or exercisable for Common Shares (i) as a bona fide gift or gifts, provided that the donee or donees agree to be bound in writing by the restrictions set forth herein, (ii) to any trust or family limited partnership for the direct or indirect benefit of the undersigned or the immediate family of the undersigned, provided that the trustee of the trust or general partner of the family limited partnership, as the case may be, agrees to be bound by the restrictions set forth herein, and provided further that any such transfer shall not involve a disposition for value, (iii) pursuant to the exercise by the undersigned of stock options that have been granted by the Company prior to, and are outstanding as of, the date of the Underwriting Agreement, where the Common Shares received upon any such exercise is held by the undersigned, individually or as fiduciary, in accordance with the terms of this Lock-Up Agreement, or (iv) with the prior written consent of Aegis Capital; provided, however, that, with respect to the exceptions in clauses (i)—(iii), no filing pursuant to Section 16 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, is required or made voluntarily during the restricted period referred to in the previous paragraphs other than a Form 5 Annual Statement of Changes in Beneficial Ownership of Securities. For purposes of this Lock-Up Agreement, “immediate family” shall mean any relationship by blood, marriage or adoption, not more remote than first cousin.
 
 
 
 
The undersigned represents and warrants that the undersigned beneficially owns the Common Shares covered by this Lock-Up Agreement, and that the undersigned has full power and authority to enter into this Lock-Up Agreement. The undersigned agrees that the provisions of this Lock-Up Agreement shall be binding also upon the successors, assigns, heirs and personal representatives of the undersigned. The undersigned also agrees and consents to the entry of stop transfer instructions with the Company’s transfer agent and registrar against the transfer of the undersigned’s Common Shares, except in compliance with this Lock-Up Agreement. In furtherance of the foregoing, the Company and its transfer agent are hereby authorized to decline to make any transfer of securities if such transfer would constitute a violation or breach of this Lock-Up Agreement.
 
Notwithstanding the provisions of this Lock-Up Agreement set forth above, if the Underwriting Agreement (other than the provisions thereof which survive termination) shall terminate or be terminated prior to payment for and delivery of the Common Shares to be sold thereunder, the undersigned shall be released from all obligations under this Lock-Up Agreement.
 
This Lock-Up Agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.
 
Very truly yours,
 
 
 
Name: